Understanding Microfluidic

Nanofluidics/Microfluidics defined the science of manipulating fluids at a nano and/or microscale andalso the related techniques and technologies. At these sizes, fluids' dynamics radically changescompared to those we experience in daily life at a macroscale. Investigating such properties and studyingmicroscopic objects such as cells or proteins requires the control of fluids, hence the use of microfluidicchips. Chips are devices composed of micrometric patterns from a few nanometers to hundredsmicrometer, molded or engraved thanks to high-resolutive microfabrication techniques within whichfluids circulate.

Microfluidic chips allow the miniaturization of circuits which considerably decreases the size of designsas those used for screening methods, the amount of reagents for flow chemistry, or of studied objectsfor single-cells experiments. Such devices are well-known and already commercially available such aspregnancy test, or insulin pump. Others chips are still under investigation. In the following, we providean overview of the main applications carried out in the IPGG. A few definitions that characterizedmicrofluidics, and the most common fabrication techniques to achieve microfluidic chips will also bedescribed. We will discuss the future of microfluidics in the light of IPGG projects.