Université PSL

Research Projects

L’IPGG offre des financements postdoctoraux pour des projets où la microfluidique joue un rôle central au sein des équipes de recherche membres de l'IPGG.

Nous mettons un accent particulier sur les projets "à haut risque scientifique", ceux qui sont difficiles à financer par les sources habituelles (ANR, etc.).

Nous donnons la possibilité de nous proposer plusieurs thèses pour un seul projet au sein de différents laboratoires de l’IPGG.

Nous souhaitons soutenir un ou deux projets de plus grande ampleur pour lequel, grâce à une synergie mise en œuvre au sein de l’IPGG, il sera possible de relever des défis d’envergure.



New miniaturized tools with selective sorbents based on molecularly or ion imprinted polymers for the analysis of compounds at trace level in real samples

Team:
LSABM
​Project leader:
Valérie Pichon
Year:
2017

Miniaturized devices have enormous benefits since they save time and reduce the consumption of reagents and solvents, but they also lead to a dramatic decrease in the separation power and in the injected amounts, which is a serious limitation when the target analytes are at trace-levels in complex samples. This project aims to integrate a sample pretreatment step to extract and concentrate the target analytes, based on a selective mechanism with molecularly and ion imprinted polymers synthesized in situ, to prevent from the simultaneous extraction and concentration of interfering compounds. After optimizing the synthesis conditions, the protocols to selectively extract and preconcentrate the target analytes present in complex real samples will be optimized and validated. Next, the target analytes will be released and will be separated and specifically detected with a printed electrode or by LED induced fluorescence after complexation with a custom-developed probe. Both high selectivity of the polymers and specificity of the detection modes should compensate for the lack of performance of the microsystem separation step. Dopamine and other neurotransmitters in biological samples and lanthanide ions in environmental samples will be the model analytes and samples of this project.


Statistical exploration of fitness gradients

Team:
LBC
​Project leader:
Clément NIZAK
Year:
2016

Fitness landscapes determine evolutionary dynamics, in analogy to energy potential landscapes that rule dynamics of physical systems. Given their extremely high dimension (typically 10200), mapping exhaustively protein fitness landscapes and harnessing their local and global structure is impossible. Thus, how much local fitness gradients can be used to infer long term Evolution is still an open question. Here we will probe the local fitness landscape gradient near 103 protein-encoding genes by characterizing phenotypic properties of their sequence space neighborhoods. For this, we will measure the individual phenotype of thousands of point mutants in their neighborhood following our droplet microfluidics-based large-scale genotype-phenotype mapping strategy. Next we will relate the outcome of many long-term evolution trajectories starting from each original gene with the local fitness gradients in their neighborhood. We will next set up an extension of our technology to directly select genes according to the phenotypic distribution and local fitness gradient in their neighborhood (instead of their current fitness), opening up to the direct selection for evolvability of protein-encoding genes.


Formation and propagation of renal cysts: study in a biomimetic multilumen system

Team:
MMBM
​Project leader:
Coscoy S., Descroix S., Demolombe S.
Year:
2016

Our project aims to reproduce the mechanical constraints induced by growing cysts on quiescent epithelial cells, leading to their entrance in a proliferative cycle and to the generation of new cysts. This ‘snowball” effect leads to renal failure in the most common hereditary nephropathy, ADPKD (Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease). We will study innovative aspects of this cystic spiral by developing a biomimetic system of deformable parallel multi-tubes, mimicking the physiological organization of tubules and their compression by expanding cysts, thanks to original microfabrication and microfluidic approaches. We will characterize the events involved in tubular deformations and generation of new cysts by quantitative imaging and single cell transcriptomics.


Investigating surface rheology for droplet-based microfluidics

Team:
MMN
​Project leader:
Anne Varenne et Marie-Caroline
Year:
2016

Two-phase flows are involved in many industrial processes (cosmetics, food, new materials, enhanced oil recovery) and are largely studied since several decades. These studies strongly benefit from the emergence of microfluidics, offering building block experiments or model systems for both single bubble/droplet system or foam/emulsions. These studies lead to both important fundamental questions and to a wide spectrum of applications. The question we address is the influence of the used surfactant (soluble or not) on the global dynamics of these objects. There is no consensus in the literature and we propose to study model systems starting from a building block experiment: a single droplet. The results should have a significant impact for both the droplet –based microfluidics, and more generally to the soft matter community.


A Kidney on a chip for advanced nanofiltration

​Project leader:
Lydéric Bocquet
Year:
2016

The vivid need in fresh water is one of the main challenges now faced by humanity. Water desalination and water recycling involve costly separation processes in terms of energy. The domain has been boosted over the last two decades by the progresses made in membrane technologies for water purification, such as reverse osmosis or nano- and ultra- filtration [1], and more recently by the possibilities offered by nanoscale materials, such as graphene or advanced membranes [2, 3]. However, a necessary step for progress requires out-of-the-box ideas beyond sieving separation principles.
In this projet our aim is to fabricate a biomimetic device mimicking one of the most efficient filtration devices: the kidney [4]. We showed recently in a theoretical investigation, see Ref. [5], that the central piece of the kidney filtration, the U-shaped loop of Henle, is designed as an active osmotic exchanger: accordingly, the waste is separated from water and salt via a symbiotic reabsorbtion, with salt playing the role of an ”osmotic activator” [5]. Beyond, we showed that this design allows to operate at a remarkably small energy cost, typically one order of magnitude smaller than traditional sieving processes like nanofiltration, while working at much smaller pressures.
Taking a biomimetic perspective, we now want to take inspiration from this design and fabricate experimentally a microfluidic artificial counterpart of the kidney filtration process. The design will rely on existing microfabrication technologies and membranes, and use only electric fields as driving forces. This will allow to explore systematically the performance of such a osmotic exchanger in terms of separation of species. Various extensions will be considered. Such a ”kidney on a chip” could be used for compact and low-energy artificial dialytic systems. It also points to new avenues for efficient separation processes and advanced water recycling.


Development of a lab-on-a-chip for proteomics: an integrated isoelectric focusing / enzymatic digestion / mass spectrometry protocol

Team:
SEISAD
​Project leader:
A. Varenne, MC Jullien
Year:
2016

In the context of proteomics, there are still thousands of novel proteins to discover. Whereas classical protocols need various time consuming off-line steps, we propose herein to design an integrated lab-on-a-chip that will perform isoelectric focusing followed by protein digestion and finally mass spectrometry (MS) characterization. It will consist in (1) separating the proteins in function of their isoelectric point, (2) incorporating the focused protein zones into droplet microreactors including a digestive enzyme, (3) transferring the digested protein droplets into MS, either via a MALDI plate or an integrated ESI interface for MS. The development of such a lab-on-a-chip will bring a new path for proteomic sciences by proposing a rapid, on-line and low sample consuming protein characterization method.


Plant Protoplasts on Chip: cells, polarity and ontogenesis

Team:
NBMS
​Project leader:
J. Fattaccioli – JC Palauqui
Year:
2016

Because a cellulosic wall encases plant cells, plant morphogenesis cannot rely on cell migration inside the organism: differentiation of a plant cell thus depends more on its spatial positioning within the tissue than its clonal origin. In addition to mechanical and chemical constraints, cells experience hormonal and metabolic fluxes that can be both inhomogeneous and polar, and drive differentiation. The understanding of the influence of these parameters on the fate of cells during plant development is crucial and necessitates the design of monitoring and observation techniques with a high spatio-temporal resolution. The aim of the project is hence to develop a microfluidic device as a tool to explore and decipher the synergetic role of various external constraints on the development of individual protoplasts: mechanical confinement, presence of a polarized flux of differentiation signals.


Hybrid hydrogel capsules for 3D cell culture

Team:
LCMD
​Project leader:
Bremond
Year:
2015

The LCMD has recently developed a new strategy to form liquid core hydrogel capsules that are compatible to cell culture. The use of microfluidic technology allows a large production rate of such compartments that opens the way to screening applications of living tissues. The final aim of the project is to bring the capsule technology to such a level of accomplishment that it becomes an accessible and versatile tool for 3D cell culture in academic or industrial biology laboratories. The success of this new tool for cell culture rests on the possibility to implement a multilayer structure with various biopolymer gels, to further downscale the capsule size and to finally elaborate microfluidic strategies to manipulate capsules and to monitor the fate of numerous reconstructed tissues or organoids.


Microfluidics and perinatal pathologies

Team:
MMBM
​Project leader:
Stephanie DESCROIX
Year:
2015

While international studies show that preterm birth has become the leading cause of neonatal mortality, the french « cour des comptes » has recently highlighted the alarming situation of perinatal care in France. In this context the IPGG an unique institut in France dedicated to Microfluidics and FCS PremUP unique network of research and perinatal care, have decided to join their efforts to protect the health of the mother and the newborn. This collaborative effort gathers different scientific communities and will allow the development of microfluidic relevant tools to identify new biomarkers of diseases of pregnancy and propose new therapeutic approaches for perinatal pathologies.


Electron driven chemistry in diphasic millireactors for methane valorization

Team:
2PM
​Project leader:
Stephanie OGNIER
Year:
2015

The objective of the work is to synthesize liquid oxygenates fuels (mainly formaldehyde and/or methanol) by direct oxidation of methane in a two-phase plasma milli-reactor. Nowadays, the direct oxidation of methane is performed catalytically at high temperatures. The main difficulties of this process are related to the stability of the methane molecule and the reactivity of the oxygenate fuels which may be oxidized subsequently into CO and CO2, with the consequent drastic decrease in selectivity with the methane conversion rate. Using plasma gas-liquid millireactor will give the opportunity to produce formaldehyde at room temperature and trap it in-situ by absorption in a liquid phase, thus obtaining both high selectivity and conversion rates.


36 projects.