Université PSL

Research Projects

L’IPGG offre des financements postdoctoraux pour des projets où la microfluidique joue un rôle central au sein des équipes de recherche membres de l'IPGG.

Nous mettons un accent particulier sur les projets "à haut risque scientifique", ceux qui sont difficiles à financer par les sources habituelles (ANR, etc.).

Nous donnons la possibilité de nous proposer plusieurs thèses pour un seul projet au sein de différents laboratoires de l’IPGG.

Nous souhaitons soutenir un ou deux projets de plus grande ampleur pour lequel, grâce à une synergie mise en œuvre au sein de l’IPGG, il sera possible de relever des défis d’envergure.



Formation and propagation of renal cysts: study in a biomimetic multilumen system

Team:
MMBM
​Project leader:
Coscoy S., Descroix S., Demolombe S.
Year:
2016

Our project aims to reproduce the mechanical constraints induced by growing cysts on quiescent epithelial cells, leading to their entrance in a proliferative cycle and to the generation of new cysts. This ‘snowball” effect leads to renal failure in the most common hereditary nephropathy, ADPKD (Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease). We will study innovative aspects of this cystic spiral by developing a biomimetic system of deformable parallel multi-tubes, mimicking the physiological organization of tubules and their compression by expanding cysts, thanks to original microfabrication and microfluidic approaches. We will characterize the events involved in tubular deformations and generation of new cysts by quantitative imaging and single cell transcriptomics.


Investigating surface rheology for droplet-based microfluidics

Team:
MMN
​Project leader:
Marie-Caroline Jullien
Year:
2016

Two-phase flows are involved in many industrial processes (cosmetics, food, new materials, enhanced oil recovery) and are largely studied since several decades. These studies strongly benefit from the emergence of microfluidics, offering building block experiments or model systems for both single bubble/droplet system or foam/emulsions. These studies lead to both important fundamental questions and to a wide spectrum of applications. The question we address is the influence of the used surfactant (soluble or not) on the global dynamics of these objects. There is no consensus in the literature and we propose to study model systems starting from a building block experiment: a single droplet. The results should have a significant impact for both the droplet –based microfluidics, and more generally to the soft matter community.


A Kidney on a chip for advanced nanofiltration

​Project leader:
Lydéric Bocquet
Year:
2016

The vivid need in fresh water is one of the main challenges now faced by humanity. Water desalination and water recycling involve costly separation processes in terms of energy. The domain has been boosted over the last two decades by the progresses made in membrane technologies for water purification, such as reverse osmosis or nano- and ultra- filtration [1], and more recently by the possibilities offered by nanoscale materials, such as graphene or advanced membranes [2, 3]. However, a necessary step for progress requires out-of-the-box ideas beyond sieving separation principles.
In this projet our aim is to fabricate a biomimetic device mimicking one of the most efficient filtration devices: the kidney [4]. We showed recently in a theoretical investigation, see Ref. [5], that the central piece of the kidney filtration, the U-shaped loop of Henle, is designed as an active osmotic exchanger: accordingly, the waste is separated from water and salt via a symbiotic reabsorbtion, with salt playing the role of an ”osmotic activator” [5]. Beyond, we showed that this design allows to operate at a remarkably small energy cost, typically one order of magnitude smaller than traditional sieving processes like nanofiltration, while working at much smaller pressures.
Taking a biomimetic perspective, we now want to take inspiration from this design and fabricate experimentally a microfluidic artificial counterpart of the kidney filtration process. The design will rely on existing microfabrication technologies and membranes, and use only electric fields as driving forces. This will allow to explore systematically the performance of such a osmotic exchanger in terms of separation of species. Various extensions will be considered. Such a ”kidney on a chip” could be used for compact and low-energy artificial dialytic systems. It also points to new avenues for efficient separation processes and advanced water recycling.


Plant Protoplasts on Chip: cells, polarity and ontogenesis

​Project leader:
J. Fattaccioli – JC Palauqui
Year:
2016

Because a cellulosic wall encases plant cells, plant morphogenesis cannot rely on cell migration inside the organism: differentiation of a plant cell thus depends more on its spatial positioning within the tissue than its clonal origin. In addition to mechanical and chemical constraints, cells experience hormonal and metabolic fluxes that can be both inhomogeneous and polar, and drive differentiation. The understanding of the influence of these parameters on the fate of cells during plant development is crucial and necessitates the design of monitoring and observation techniques with a high spatio-temporal resolution. The aim of the project is hence to develop a microfluidic device as a tool to explore and decipher the synergetic role of various external constraints on the development of individual protoplasts: mechanical confinement, presence of a polarized flux of differentiation signals.


Development of a lab-on-a-chip for proteomics: an integrated isoelectric focusing / enzymatic digestion / mass spectrometry protocol

Team:
SEISAD
​Project leader:
A. Varenne, MC Jullien
Year:
2016

In the context of proteomics, there are still thousands of novel proteins to discover. Whereas classical protocols need various time consuming off-line steps, we propose herein to design an integrated lab-on-a-chip that will perform isoelectric focusing followed by protein digestion and finally mass spectrometry (MS) characterization. It will consist in (1) separating the proteins in function of their isoelectric point, (2) incorporating the focused protein zones into droplet microreactors including a digestive enzyme, (3) transferring the digested protein droplets into MS, either via a MALDI plate or an integrated ESI interface for MS. The development of such a lab-on-a-chip will bring a new path for proteomic sciences by proposing a rapid, on-line and low sample consuming protein characterization method.


Hybrid hydrogel capsules for 3D cell culture

Team:
LCMD
​Project leader:
Bremond
Year:
2015

The LCMD has recently developed a new strategy to form liquid core hydrogel capsules that are compatible to cell culture. The use of microfluidic technology allows a large production rate of such compartments that opens the way to screening applications of living tissues. The final aim of the project is to bring the capsule technology to such a level of accomplishment that it becomes an accessible and versatile tool for 3D cell culture in academic or industrial biology laboratories. The success of this new tool for cell culture rests on the possibility to implement a multilayer structure with various biopolymer gels, to further downscale the capsule size and to finally elaborate microfluidic strategies to manipulate capsules and to monitor the fate of numerous reconstructed tissues or organoids.


Engineering biochemical intra- and extracellular gradients to analyze cell decision-making during migration

Team:
LOCCO
​Project leader:
Mathieu Coppey et Maxime Dahan
Year:
2015

The migration of a mammalian cell in a complex tissue requires the detection and processing of numerous chemical and physical signals distributed in the environment. In order to navigate correctly, a cell needs to amplify some signals, to filter out other ones, or to take a decision based on a combination of them. To get a quantitative understanding of the intracellular processes in charge of such tasks, we are developing tools allowing the control of the cell microenvironment and allowing the perturbation of intracellular biochemical activities. The present project consists in setting up simplified experimental schemes to quantify the migration process. In a first step, we will study the sensitivity of cells when initiating migration. We will use a controlled microenvironment in order to initially deprive cells of any directional cue. Then we will perform optogenetic perturbations to induce intracellular signaling gradients, hereby imposing a favored direction. In a second step, we will study the robustness of migration. We will impose an axis of migration from the microenvironment using microfluidics and photopatterning to make external gradients of attractive molecules. We will then challenge this axis with orthogonal gradients of optogenetic signaling perturbations.


Microfluidics and perinatal pathologies

Team:
MMBM
​Project leader:
Stephanie DESCROIX
Year:
2015

While international studies show that preterm birth has become the leading cause of neonatal mortality, the french « cour des comptes » has recently highlighted the alarming situation of perinatal care in France. In this context the IPGG an unique institut in France dedicated to Microfluidics and FCS PremUP unique network of research and perinatal care, have decided to join their efforts to protect the health of the mother and the newborn. This collaborative effort gathers different scientific communities and will allow the development of microfluidic relevant tools to identify new biomarkers of diseases of pregnancy and propose new therapeutic approaches for perinatal pathologies.


A new class of magnetosensitive surfactants for the magnetic actuation of microfluidic operations: from proof-of-concept to autonomous devices

​Project leader:
D. Baigl, S. Rudiuk, M. Morel, J.-L. Viovy, S. Descroix
Year:
2015

This project aims at developing a new concept of magnetic actuation of microfluidics systems based on the implementation of a new class of magnetosensitive surfactants. By harnessing for the first time magnetic field-induced gradients of interfacial energies, we expect to magnetically induce and control the motion of individual water or oil drops, floating or immersed in another liquid, or deposited on a solid susbtrate. Inside microfluidic channels, this new concept will allow us to magnetically control fluid flow in microfluidic devices and achieve key-operations such as fluid filling, transport and mixing. Multi-modal operations will also be explored by developing photo-magnetosensitive surfactants or by combining our approach with magnetic particles. Finally, we will integrate the accumulated knowledge to develop a new generation of electric power-free, autonomous, portable devices fully powered by miniature permanent magnets.


Electron driven chemistry in diphasic millireactors for methane valorization

Team:
2PM
​Project leader:
Stephanie OGNIER
Year:
2015

The objective of the work is to synthesize liquid oxygenates fuels (mainly formaldehyde and/or methanol) by direct oxidation of methane in a two-phase plasma milli-reactor. Nowadays, the direct oxidation of methane is performed catalytically at high temperatures. The main difficulties of this process are related to the stability of the methane molecule and the reactivity of the oxygenate fuels which may be oxidized subsequently into CO and CO2, with the consequent drastic decrease in selectivity with the methane conversion rate. Using plasma gas-liquid millireactor will give the opportunity to produce formaldehyde at room temperature and trap it in-situ by absorption in a liquid phase, thus obtaining both high selectivity and conversion rates.


36 projects.