Université PSL



Laboratory :
Author :
Revue :
Year :
Microfluidic actuators based on temperature-responsive hydrogels
Joshua Ricouvier, Romain Pierrat, Rémi Carminati, Patrick Tabeling, Pavel Yazhgur
Phys. Rev. Lett. - 119 (20) 208001 - DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.208001 - 2017
We study long range density fluctuations (hyperuniformity) in two-dimensional jammed packings of bidisperse droplets. Taking advantage of microfluidics, we systematically span a large range of size and concentration ratios of the two droplet populations. We identify various defects increasing long range density fluctuations mainly due to organization of local particle environment. By choosing an appropriate bidispersity, we fabricate materials with a high level of hyperuniformity. Interesting transparency properties of these optimized materials are established based on numerical simulations.
Particle deposition kinetics of colloidal suspensions in microchannels at high ionic strength
Cesare M. Cejas, Fabrice Monti, Marine Truchet, Jean-Pierre Burnouf, and Patrick Tabeling
Langmuir - 33 (26) 6471–6480 - DOI: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.7b01394 - 2017
Despite its considerable practical importance, the deposition of real Brownian particles transported in a channel by a liquid, at small Reynolds numbers, has never been described at a comprehensive level. Here, by coupling microfluidic experiments, theory, and numerics, we succeed in unravelling the problem for the case of straight channels at high salinity. We discover a broad regime of deposition (the van der Waals regime) in which particle–wall van der Waals interactions govern the deposition mechanism. We determine the range of existence of the regime, for which we calculate the concentration profiles, retention profiles, and deposition kinetics analytically. The retention profiles decay as the inverse of the square root of the distance from the entry, and the deposition kinetics are given by the expression , where S is a dimensionless deposition function, A is the Hamaker constant, and ξL is a dimensionless parameter characterizing fluid flow properties. These findings are well supported by numerics. Experimentally, we find that the retention profiles behave as x–0.5±0.1 (where x is the distance from the channel entry) over three decades in scale, as predicted theoretically. By varying the flow conditions (speed, geometry, surface properties, and concentration) so as to cover four decades in ξL and taking the Hamaker constant as a free parameter, we accurately confirm the theoretical expression for the deposition kinetics. Operating in the van der Waals regime enables control of the deposition rates via surface chemistry. From a surface science perspective, working in the van der Waals regime enables us to measure the Hamaker constants of thousands of particles in a few minutes, a task that would take a much longer time to perform with standard AFM.
Caveolin-1 Expression Increases upon Maturation in Dendritic Cells and Promotes Their Migration to Lymph Nodes Thereby Favoring the Induction of CD8 T Cell Responses.
Oyarce C, Cruz-Gomez S, Galvez-Cancino F, Vargas P, Moreau HD, Diaz-Valdivia N, Diaz J, Salazar-Onfray FA, Pacheco R6, Lennon-Dumenil AM, Quest AFG, Lladser A.
Front Immunol - 13;8 1794 - doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.01794 - 2017
Dendritic cell (DC) trafficking from peripheral tissues to lymph nodes (LNs) is a key step required to initiate T cell responses against pathogens as well as tumors. In this context, cellular membrane protrusions and the actin cytoskeleton are essential to guide DC migration towards chemotactic signals. Caveolin-1 (CAV1) is a scaffolding protein that modulates signaling pathways leading to remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton and enhanced migration of cancer cells. However, whether CAV1 is relevant for DC function and specifically for DC migration to LNs is unknown. Here, we show that CAV1 expression is upregulated in DCs upon LPS- and TNF-α-induced maturation. CAV1 deficiency did not affect differentiation, maturation, or the ability of DCs to activate CD8+ T cells in vitro. However, CAV1-deficient (CAV1-/-) DCs displayed reduced in vivo trafficking to draining LNs in control and inflammatory conditions. In vitro, CAV1-/- DCs showed reduced directional migration in CCL21 gradients in transwell assays without affecting migration velocity in confined microchannels or three-dimensional collagen matrices. In addition, CAV1-/- DCs displayed reduced activation of the small GTPase Rac1, a regulator of actin cytoskeletal remodeling, and lower numbers of F-actin-forming protrusions. Furthermore, mice adoptively transferred with peptide-pulsed CAV1-/- DCs showed reduced CD8+ T cell responses and antitumor protection. Our results suggest that CAV1 promotes the activation of Rac1 and the formation of membrane protrusions that favor DC chemotactic trafficking toward LNs where they can initiate cytotoxic T cell responses.
Forcing Entry into the Nucleus.
AlexisLomakin, GuilhermeNader, MatthieuPiel
Cell - 43 547-548 - https://doi.org/10.1016/j.devcel.2017.11.015 - 2017
Nuclear pore complexes tightly regulate nucleo-cytoplasmic transport, controlling the nuclear concentration of several transcription factors. In a recent issue of Cell, Elosegui-Artola et al. (2017) show that nuclear deformation modulates the nuclear entry rates of YAP/TAZ via nuclear pore stretching, clarifying how forces affect gene transcription.
ATP promotes the fast migration of dendritic cells through the activity of pannexin 1 channels and P2X receptors.
Sáez PJ, Vargas P, Shoji KF, Harcha PA, Lennon-Duménil AM, Sáez JC
Sci Signal. - 10(506) 7107 - doi: 10.1126/scisignal.aah7107. - 2017
Upon its release from injured cells, such as infected, transformed, inflamed, or necrotic cells, extracellular adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) acts as a danger signal that recruits phagocytes, such as neutrophils, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs), to the site of injury. The sensing of extracellular ATP occurs through purinergic (P2) receptors. We investigated the cellular mechanisms linking purinergic signaling to DC motility. We found that ATP stimulated fast DC motility through an autocrine signaling loop, which was initiated by the activation of P2X7 receptors and further amplified by pannexin 1 (Panx1) channels. Upon stimulation of the P2X7 receptor by ATP, Panx1 contributed to fast DC motility by increasing the permeability of the plasma membrane, which resulted in supplementary ATP release. In the absence of Panx1, DCs failed to increase their speed of migration in response to ATP, despite exhibiting a normal P2X7 receptor-mediated Ca2+ response. In addition to DC migration, Panx1 channel- and P2X7 receptor-dependent signaling was further required to stimulate the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. In vivo, functional Panx1 channels were required for the homing of DCs to lymph nodes, although they were dispensable for DC maturation. These data suggest that P2X7 receptors and Panx1 channels are crucial players in the regulation of DC migration to endogenous danger signals.
UNC93B1 interacts with the calcium sensor STIM1 for efficient antigen cross-presentation in dendritic cells.
Maschalidi S, Nunes-Hasler P, Nascimento CR, Sallent I, Lannoy V, Garfa-Traore M, Cagnard N, Sepulveda FE, Vargas P, Lennon-Duménil AM, van Endert P, Capiod T, Demaurex N, Darrasse-Jèze G, Manoury B
Nat Commun - 8(1) 1640 - doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-01601-5. - 2017
Dendritic cells (DC) have the unique ability to present exogenous antigens via the major histocompatibility complex class I pathway to stimulate naive CD8+ T cells. In DCs with a non-functional mutation in Unc93b1 (3d mutation), endosomal acidification, phagosomal maturation, antigen degradation, antigen export to the cytosol and the function of the store-operated-Ca2+-entry regulator STIM1 are impaired. These defects result in compromised antigen cross-presentation and anti-tumor responses in 3d-mutated mice. Here, we show that UNC93B1 interacts with the calcium sensor STIM1 in the endoplasmic reticulum, a critical step for STIM1 oligomerization and activation. Expression of a constitutively active STIM1 mutant, which no longer binds UNC93B1, restores antigen degradation and cross-presentation in 3d-mutated DCs. Furthermore, ablation of STIM1 in mouse and human cells leads to a decrease in cross-presentation. Our data indicate that the UNC93B1 and STIM1 cooperation is important for calcium flux and antigen cross-presentation in DCs.
Lysosome signaling controls the migration of dendritic cells.
Bretou M, Sáez PJ, Sanséau D, Maurin M, Lankar D, Chabaud M, Spampanato C, Malbec O, Barbier L, Muallem S, Maiuri P, Ballabio A, Helft J, Piel M, Vargas P, Lennon-Duménil AM.
Sci Immunol - 2(16) 9573. - doi: 10.1126/sciimmunol.aak9573. - 2017
Dendritic cells (DCs) patrol their environment by linking antigen acquisition by macropinocytosis to cell locomotion. DC activation upon bacterial sensing inhibits macropinocytosis and increases DC migration, thus promoting the arrival of DCs to lymph nodes for antigen presentation to T cells. The signaling events that trigger such changes are not fully understood. We show that lysosome signaling plays a critical role in this process. Upon bacterial sensing, lysosomal calcium is released by the ionic channel TRPML1 (transient receptor potential cation channel, mucolipin subfamily, member 1), which activates the actin-based motor protein myosin II at the cell rear, promoting fast and directional migration. Lysosomal calcium further induces the activation of the transcription factor EB (TFEB), which translocates to the nucleus to maintain TRPML1 expression. We found that the TRPML1-TFEB axis results from the down-regulation of macropinocytosis after bacterial sensing by DCs. Lysosomal signaling therefore emerges as a hitherto unexpected link between macropinocytosis, actomyosin cytoskeleton organization, and DC migration.
Lysosome signaling controls the migration of dendritic cells.
Aizel K1, Clark AG, Simon A, Geraldo S, Funfak A, Vargas P, Bibette J, Vignjevic DM, Bremond N.
Lab. Chip - 17(22) 3851-3861 - doi: 10.1039/c7lc00649g. - 2017
In many cell types, migration can be oriented towards a chemical stimulus. In mammals, for example, embryonic cells migrate to follow developmental cues, immune cells migrate toward sites of inflammation, and cancer cells migrate away from the primary tumour and toward blood vessels during metastasis. Understanding how cells migrate in 3D environments in response to chemical cues is thus crucial to understanding directed migration in normal and disease states. To date, chemotaxis in mammalian cells has been primarily studied using 2D migration models. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that the mechanisms by which cells migrate in 2D and 3D environments dramatically differ, and cells in their native environments are confronted with a complex chemical milieu. To address these issues, we developed a microfluidic device to monitor the behaviour of cells embedded in a 3D collagen matrix in the presence of complex concentration fields of chemoattractants. This tuneable microsystem enables the generation of (1) homogeneous, stationary gradients set by a purely diffusive mechanism, or (2) spatially evolving, stationary gradients, set by a convection-diffusion mechanism. The device allows for stable gradients over several days and is large enough to study the behaviour of large cell aggregates. We observe that primary mature dendritic cells respond uniformly to homogeneous diffusion gradients, while cell behaviour is highly position-dependent in spatially variable convection-diffusion gradients. In addition, we demonstrate a directed response of cancer cells migrating away from tumour-like aggregates in the presence of soluble chemokine gradients. Together, this microfluidic device is a powerful system to observe the response of different cells and aggregates to tuneable chemical gradients.
Mechanisms for fast cell migration in complex environments.
Vargas P, Barbier L, Sáez PJ, Piel M.
Curr Opin Cell Biol - 48 72-78 - doi: 10.1016/j.ceb.2017.04.007 - 2017
Cell migration depends on a combination of the cell's intrinsic capacity to move and the proper interpretation of external cues. This multistep process enables leukocytes to travel long distances in organs in just a few hours. This fast migration is partly due to the leukocytes' high level of plasticity, which helps them to adapt to a changing environment. Here, we review recent progress in understanding the mechanisms used by leukocytes to move rapidly and efficiently in intricate anatomical landscapes. We shall focus on specific cytoskeletal rearrangements used by neutrophils and dendritic cells to migrate within confined environments. Lastly, we will describe the properties that facilitate the rapid migration of leukocyte in complex tissue geometries.
Fluorescence eXclusion Measurement of volume in live cells.
Cadart C, Zlotek-Zlotkiewicz E, Venkova L, Thouvenin O, Racine V, Le Berre M, Monnier S, Piel M.
Methods Cell Biol. - 139 103-120 - doi: 10.1016/bs.mcb.2016.11.009 - 2017
Volume is a basic physical property of cells; however, it has been poorly investigated in cell biology so far, mostly because it is difficult to measure it precisely. Recently, large efforts were made to experimentally measure mammalian cell size and used mass, density, or volume as proxies for cell size. Here, we describe a method enabling cell volume measurements for single living cells. The method is based on the principle of fluorescent dye exclusion and can be easily implemented in cell biology laboratories. As this method is very versatile, it can be used for cells of different sizes, adherent or growing in suspension, over several cell cycles and is independent of cell shape changes. The method is also compatible with traditional cell biology tools such as epifluorescence imaging or drug treatments.

325 publications.