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Multicolor superresolution imaging using volumetric multifocus microscopy
Bassam Hajja, Jan Wisniewskib, Mohamed El Beheiry,, Jiji Chen, Andrey Revyakin, Carl Wu, and Maxime Dahan
Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA - vol.111(n°49) 17480–17485 - DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1412396111 - 2014
Single molecule-based superresolution imaging has become an essential tool in modern cell biology. Because of the limited depth of field of optical imaging systems, one of the major challenges in superresolution imaging resides in capturing the 3D nanoscale morphology of the whole cell. Despite many previous attempts to extend the application of photo-activated localization microscopy (PALM) and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) techniques into three dimensions, effective localization depths do not typically exceed 1.2 µm. Thus, 3D imaging of whole cells (or even large organelles) still demands sequential acquisition at different axial positions and, therefore, suffers from the combined effects of out-of-focus molecule activation (increased background) and bleaching (loss of detections). Here, we present the use of multifocus microscopy for volumetric multicolor superresolution imaging. By simultaneously imaging nine different focal planes, the multifocus microscope instantaneously captures the distribution of single molecules (either fluorescent proteins or synthetic dyes) throughout an ∼4-µm-deep volume, with lateral and axial localization precisions of ∼20 and 50 nm, respectively. The capabilities of multifocus microscopy to rapidly image the 3D organization of intracellular structures are illustrated by superresolution imaging of the mammalian mitochondrial network and yeast microtubules during cell division.
Single-molecule tracking in live cells reveals distinct target-search strategies of transcription factors in the nucleus
Izeddin I, Récamier V, Bosanac L, Cissé II, Boudarene L, Dugast-Darzacq C, Proux F, Bénichou O, Voituriez R, Bensaude O, Dahan M ans Darzacq X
e-Life - -3 e02230 - DOI: 10.7554/eLife.02230 - 2014
Gene regulation relies on transcription factors (TFs) exploring the nucleus searching their targets. So far, most studies have focused on how fast TFs diffuse, underestimating the role of nuclear architecture. We implemented a single-molecule tracking assay to determine TFs dynamics. We found that c-Myc is a global explorer of the nucleus. In contrast, the positive transcription elongation factor P-TEFb is a local explorer that oversamples its environment. Consequently, each c-Myc molecule is equally available for all nuclear sites while P-TEFb reaches its targets in a position-dependent manner. Our observations are consistent with a model in which the exploration geometry of TFs is restrained by their interactions with nuclear structures and not by exclusion. The geometry-controlled kinetics of TFs target-search illustrates the influence of nuclear architecture on gene regulation, and has strong implications on how proteins react in the nucleus and how their function can be regulated in space and time.
Imaging Cse4 histone fate reveals stable residence at centromeres after de novo replacement in S phase
Jan Wisniewski, Bassam Hajj, Jiji Chen, Gaku Mizuguchi, Hua Xiao, Debbie Wei, Maxime Dahan, and Carl Wu
e-Life - -3 e02203 - DOI:10.7554/eLife.02203 - 2014
The budding yeast centromere contains Cse4, a specialized histone H3 variant. Fluorescence pulse-chase analysis of an internally tagged Cse4 reveals that it is replaced with newly synthesized molecules in S phase, remaining stably associated with centromeres thereafter. In contrast, C-terminally-tagged Cse4 is functionally impaired, showing slow cell growth, cell lethality at elevated temperatures, and extra-centromeric nuclear accumulation. Recent studies using such strains gave conflicting findings regarding the centromeric abundance and cell cycle dynamics of Cse4. Our findings indicate that internally tagged Cse4 is a better reporter of the biology of this histone variant. Furthermore, the size of centromeric Cse4 clusters was precisely mapped with a new 3D-PALM method, revealing substantial compaction during anaphase. Cse4-specific chaperone Scm3 displays steady-state, stoichiometric co-localization with Cse4 at centromeres throughout the cell cycle, while undergoing exchange with a nuclear pool. These findings suggest that a stable Cse4 nucleosome is maintained by dynamic chaperone-in-residence Scm3.
ß-amyloid induces a dying-back process and remote trans-synaptic alterations in a microfluidic-based reconstructed neuronal network
Deleglise B, Magnifico S, Duplus E, Vaur P, Soubeyre V, Belle M, Vignes M, Viovy JL, Jacotot E, Peyrin JM and Brugg B
Acta Neuropathologica - 2 145 - DOI: 10.1186/s40478-014-0145-3 - 2014
INTRODUCTION: Recent histopathological studies have shown that neurodegenerative processes in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease develop along neuronal networks and that hallmarks could propagate trans-synaptically through neuronal pathways. The underlying molecular mechanisms are still unknown, and investigations have been impeded by the complexity of brain connectivity and the need for experimental models allowing a fine manipulation of the local microenvironment at the subcellular level.

RESULTS: In this study, we have grown primary cortical mouse neurons in microfluidic (μFD) devices to separate soma from axonal projections in fluidically isolated microenvironments, and applied β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides locally to the different cellular compartments. We observed that Aβ application to the somato-dendritic compartment triggers a "dying-back" process, involving caspase and NAD(+) signalling pathways, whereas exposure of the axonal/distal compartment to Aβ deposits did not induce axonal degeneration. In contrast, co-treatment with somatic sub-toxic glutamate and axonal Aβ peptide triggered axonal degeneration. To study the consequences of such subcellular/local Aβ stress at the network level we developed new μFD multi-chamber devices containing funnel-shaped micro-channels which force unidirectional axon growth and used them to recreate in vitro an oriented cortico-hippocampal pathway. Aβ application to the cortical somato-dendritic chamber leads to a rapid cortical pre-synaptic loss. This happens concomitantly with a post-synaptic hippocampal tau-phosphorylation which could be prevented by the NMDA-receptor antagonist, MK-801, before any sign of axonal and somato-dendritic cortical alteration.

CONCLUSION: Thanks to μFD-based reconstructed neuronal networks we evaluated the distant effects of local Aβ stress on neuronal subcompartments and networks. Our data indicates that distant neurotransmission modifications actively take part in the early steps of the abnormal mechanisms leading to pathology progression independently of local Aβ production. This offers new tools to decipher mechanisms underlying Braak's staging. Our data suggests that local Aβ can play a role in remote tauopathy by distant disturbance of neurotransmission, providing a putative mechanism underlying the spatiotemporal appearance of pretangles.
High Spatiotemporal Control of Spontaneous Reactions Using Ultrasound-Triggered Composite Droplets
M. Bezagu, C. Errico, V. Chaulot-Talmon, F. Monti, M. Tanter, . Tabeling, J. Cossy, T. Arseniyadis and O. Couture
JACS - 136 (20) 7205–7208 - DOI: 10.1021/ja5019354 - 2014
Achieving high spatial and temporal control over a spontaneous reaction is a particularly challenging task with potential breakthroughs in various fields of research including surface patterning and drug delivery. We report here an exceptionally effective method that allows attaining such control. This method relies on a remotely triggered ultrasound-induced release of a reactant encapsulated in a composite microdroplet of liquid perfluorohexane. More specifically, the demonstration was achieved by locally applying a focused 2.25 MHz transducer onto a microfluidic channel in which were injected composite microdroplets containing a solution of an azidocoumarin and an external flow containing a reactive alkyne.
Recent progress in the physics of microfluidics and related biotechnological applications
Patrick Tabeling
Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. - -25 129-34 - 10.1016/j.copbio.2013.11.009 - 2014
Since the mid-nineties, the physical understanding of microfluidic flows has reached a level sufficiently elaborate for envisaging applications in all sorts of domains. As the domain expanded, the existence of new situations where fluid dynamics at small or moderate Reynolds numbers combines with confinement, interfaces, transport, particles along with disordered substrates raised new challenges. The present review is restricted to three domains in which progress in the physical description has been made recently (droplet-based, inertial and paper-based microfluidics) and for which biotechnological applications are foreseeable.
Physics and technological aspects of nanofluidics
Lydéric Bocquet et Patrick Tabeling
Lab. Chip - 14 3143–3158 - DOI: 10.1039/c4lc00325j - 2014
From a physical perspective, nanofluidics represents an extremely rich domain. It hosts many mechanisms acting on the nanoscale, which combine together or interact with the confinement to generate new phenomena. Superfast flows in carbon nanotubes, nonlinear electrokinetic transport, slippage over smooth surfaces, nanobubble stability, etc. are the most striking phenomena that have been unveiled over the past few years, and some of them are still awaiting an explanation. One may anticipate that new nanofluidic effects will be discovered in the future, but at the moment, the technological barrier is high. Fabrication of nanochannels is most often a tour de force, slow and costly. However, with the accumulation of technological skills along with the use of new nanofluidic materials (like nanotubes), nanofluidics is becoming increasingly accessible to experimentalists. Among the technological challenges faced by the field, fabricating devices mimicking natural nanometric systems, such as aquaporins, ionic pumps or kidney osmotic filtering, seems the most demanding in terms of groundbreaking ideas. Nanoflow characterization remains delicate, although considerable progress has been achieved over the past years. The targeted application of nanofluidics is not only in the field of genomics and membrane science - with disruptive developments to be expected for water purification, desalination, and energy harvesting - but also for oil and gas production from unconventional reservoirs. Today, in view of the markets that are targeted, nanofluidics may well impact the industry more than microfluidics; this would represent an unexpected paradox. These successes rely on using a variety of materials and technologies, using state-of-the-art nanofabrication, or low-tech inexpensive approaches. As a whole, nanofluidics is a fascinating field that is facing considerable challenges today. It possesses a formidable potential and offers much space for creative groundbreaking ideas.
ESCRT Machinery Is Required for Plasma Membrane Repair
Ana Joaquina Jimenez, Paolo Maiuri, Julie Lafaurie-Janvore, Séverine Divoux, Matthieu Piel and Franck Perez
Science - Vol.343(n°6174) 1247136 - DOI: 10.1126/science.1247136 - 2014
Plasma membrane damage can be triggered by numerous phenomena, and efficient repair is essential for cell survival. Endocytosis, membrane patching, or extracellular budding can be used for plasma membrane repair. We found that endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT), involved previously in membrane budding and fission, plays a critical role in plasma membrane repair. ESCRT proteins were recruited within seconds to plasma membrane wounds. Quantitative analysis of wound closure kinetics coupled to mathematical modeling suggested that ESCRTs are involved in the repair of small wounds. Real-time imaging and correlative scanning electron microscopy (SEM) identified extracellular buds and shedding at the site of ESCRT recruitment. Thus, the repair of certain wounds is ensured by ESCRT-mediated extracellular shedding of wounded portions.
Exploring the function of cell shape and size during mitosis
Clotilde Cadart, Ewa Zlotek-Zlotkiewicz, Maël Le Berre, Matthieu Piel and Helen K. Matthews
Dev Cell - Vol.29(2) 159–169 - DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.devcel.2014.04.009 - 2014
Dividing cells almost always adopt a spherical shape. This is true of most eukaryotic cells lacking a rigid cell wall and is observed in tissue culture and single-celled organisms, as well as in cells dividing inside tissues. While the mechanisms underlying this shape change are now well described, the functional importance of the spherical mitotic cell for the success of cell division has been thus far scarcely addressed. Here we discuss how mitotic rounding contributes to spindle assembly and positioning, as well as the potential consequences of abnormal mitotic cell shape and size on chromosome segregation, tissue growth, and cancer.
ESCRT-III assembly and cytokinetic abscission are induced by tension release in the intercellular bridge
Julie Lafaurie-Janvore, Paolo Maiuri, Irène Wang, Mathieu Pinot, Jean-Baptiste Manneville, Timo Betz, Martial Balland and Matthieu Piel
Science - Vol.339 (n°6127) 1625-1629 - DOI: 10.1126/science.1233866 - 2014
The last step of cell division, cytokinesis, produces two daughter cells that remain connected by an intercellular bridge. This state often represents the longest stage of the division process. Severing the bridge (abscission) requires a well-described series of molecular events, but the trigger for abscission remains unknown. We found that pulling forces exerted by daughter cells on the intercellular bridge appear to regulate abscission. Counterintuitively, these forces prolonged connection, whereas a release of tension induced abscission. Tension release triggered the assembly of ESCRT-III (endosomal sorting complex required for transport–III), which was followed by membrane fission. This mechanism may allow daughter cells to remain connected until they have settled in their final locations, a process potentially important for tissue organization and morphogenesis.

289 publications.