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Forcing Entry into the Nucleus.
Lomakin A, Nader G, Piel M.
Dev Cell - 43(5) 547-548 - doi: 10.1016/j.devcel.2017.11.015. - 2017
Nuclear pore complexes tightly regulate nucleo-cytoplasmic transport, controlling the nuclear concentration of several transcription factors. In a recent issue of Cell, Elosegui-Artola et al. (2017) show that nuclear deformation modulates the nuclear entry rates of YAP/TAZ via nuclear pore stretching, clarifying how forces affect gene transcription.
ATP promotes the fast migration of dendritic cells through the activity of pannexin 1 channels and P2X receptors.
Sáez PJ, Vargas P, Shoji KF, Harcha PA, Lennon-Duménil AM, Sáez JC.
Sci Signal. - 10(506) pii: eaah7107 - doi: 10.1126/scisignal.aah7107. - 2017
Upon its release from injured cells, such as infected, transformed, inflamed, or necrotic cells, extracellular adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) acts as a danger signal that recruits phagocytes, such as neutrophils, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs), to the site of injury. The sensing of extracellular ATP occurs through purinergic (P2) receptors. We investigated the cellular mechanisms linking purinergic signaling to DC motility. We found that ATP stimulated fast DC motility through an autocrine signaling loop, which was initiated by the activation of P2X7 receptors and further amplified by pannexin 1 (Panx1) channels. Upon stimulation of the P2X7 receptor by ATP, Panx1 contributed to fast DC motility by increasing the permeability of the plasma membrane, which resulted in supplementary ATP release. In the absence of Panx1, DCs failed to increase their speed of migration in response to ATP, despite exhibiting a normal P2X7 receptor-mediated Ca2+ response. In addition to DC migration, Panx1 channel- and P2X7 receptor-dependent signaling was further required to stimulate the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. In vivo, functional Panx1 channels were required for the homing of DCs to lymph nodes, although they were dispensable for DC maturation. These data suggest that P2X7 receptors and Panx1 channels are crucial players in the regulation of DC migration to endogenous danger signals.
UNC93B1 interacts with the calcium sensor STIM1 for efficient antigen cross-presentation in dendritic cells
Sophia Maschalidi, Paula Nunes-Hasler, Clarissa R Nascimento, Ignacio Sallent, Valérie Lannoy, Meriem Garfa-Traore, Nicolas Cagnard, Fernando E Sepulveda, Pablo Vargas, Ana-Maria Lennon-Duménil, Peter van Endert, Thierry Capiod, Nicolas Demaurex, Guillau
Nat Commun - 1640 - DOI : 10.1038/s41467-017-01601-5 - 2017
Dendritic cells (DC) have the unique ability to present exogenous antigens via the major histocompatibility complex class I pathway to stimulate naive CD8 T cells. In DCs with a non-functional mutation in Unc93b1 (3d mutation), endosomal acidification, phagosomal maturation, antigen degradation, antigen export to the cytosol and the function of the store-operated-Ca-entry regulator STIM1 are impaired. These defects result in compromised antigen cross-presentation and anti-tumor responses in 3d-mutated mice. Here, we show that UNC93B1 interacts with the calcium sensor STIM1 in the endoplasmic reticulum, a critical step for STIM1 oligomerization and activation. Expression of a constitutively active STIM1 mutant, which no longer binds UNC93B1, restores antigen degradation and cross-presentation in 3d-mutated DCs. Furthermore, ablation of STIM1 in mouse and human cells leads to a decrease in cross-presentation. Our data indicate that the UNC93B1 and STIM1 cooperation is important for calcium flux and antigen cross-presentation in DCs
UNC93B1 interacts with the calcium sensor STIM1 for efficient antigen cross-presentation in dendritic cells.
Sophia Maschalidi, Paula Nunes-Hasler, Clarissa R Nascimento, Ignacio Sallent, Valérie Lannoy, Meriem Garfa-Traore, Nicolas Cagnard, Fernando E Sepulveda, Pablo Vargas, Ana-Maria Lennon-Duménil, Peter van Endert, Thierry Capiod, Nicolas Demaurex, Guillau
Nature Communications - 8 1640 - DOI : 10.1038/s41467-017-01601-5 - 2017
Dendritic cells (DC) have the unique ability to present exogenous antigens via the major histocompatibility complex class I pathway to stimulate naive CD8 T cells. In DCs with a non-functional mutation in Unc93b1 (3d mutation), endosomal acidification, phagosomal maturation, antigen degradation, antigen export to the cytosol and the function of the store-operated-Ca-entry regulator STIM1 are impaired. These defects result in compromised antigen cross-presentation and anti-tumor responses in 3d-mutated mice. Here, we show that UNC93B1 interacts with the calcium sensor STIM1 in the endoplasmic reticulum, a critical step for STIM1 oligomerization and activation. Expression of a constitutively active STIM1 mutant, which no longer binds UNC93B1, restores antigen degradation and cross-presentation in 3d-mutated DCs. Furthermore, ablation of STIM1 in mouse and human cells leads to a decrease in cross-presentation. Our data indicate that the UNC93B1 and STIM1 cooperation is important for calcium flux and antigen cross-presentation in DCs.
Lysosome signaling controls the migration of dendritic cells.
Bretou M, Sáez PJ, Sanséau D, Maurin M, Lankar D, Chabaud M, Spampanato C, Malbec O, Barbier L, Muallem S, Maiuri P, Ballabio A, Helft J, Piel , Vargas P, Lennon-Duménil AM
Sci Immunol - 2(16) 9573. - DOI: 10.1126/sciimmunol.aak9573 - 2017
Dendritic cells (DCs) patrol their environment by linking antigen acquisition by macropinocytosis to cell locomotion. DC activation upon bacterial sensing inhibits macropinocytosis and increases DC migration, thus promoting the arrival of DCs to lymph nodes for antigen presentation to T cells. The signaling events that trigger such changes are not fully understood. We show that lysosome signaling plays a critical role in this process. Upon bacterial sensing, lysosomal calcium is released by the ionic channel TRPML1 (transient receptor potential cation channel, mucolipin subfamily, member 1), which activates the actin-based motor protein myosin II at the cell rear, promoting fast and directional migration. Lysosomal calcium further induces the activation of the transcription factor EB (TFEB), which translocates to the nucleus to maintain TRPML1 expression. We found that the TRPML1-TFEB axis results from the down-regulation of macropinocytosis after bacterial sensing by DCs. Lysosomal signaling therefore emerges as a hitherto unexpected link between macropinocytosis, actomyosin cytoskeleton organization, and DC migration.
A tuneable microfluidic system for long duration chemotaxis experiments in a 3D collagen matrix.
Aizel K1, Clark AG, Simon A, Geraldo S, Funfak A, Vargas P, Bibette J, Vignjevic DM, Bremond N.
Sci Immunol - 17(22) 3851-3861 - doi: 10.1039/c7lc00649g. - 2017
In many cell types, migration can be oriented towards a chemical stimulus. In mammals, for example, embryonic cells migrate to follow developmental cues, immune cells migrate toward sites of inflammation, and cancer cells migrate away from the primary tumour and toward blood vessels during metastasis. Understanding how cells migrate in 3D environments in response to chemical cues is thus crucial to understanding directed migration in normal and disease states. To date, chemotaxis in mammalian cells has been primarily studied using 2D migration models. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that the mechanisms by which cells migrate in 2D and 3D environments dramatically differ, and cells in their native environments are confronted with a complex chemical milieu. To address these issues, we developed a microfluidic device to monitor the behaviour of cells embedded in a 3D collagen matrix in the presence of complex concentration fields of chemoattractants. This tuneable microsystem enables the generation of (1) homogeneous, stationary gradients set by a purely diffusive mechanism, or (2) spatially evolving, stationary gradients, set by a convection-diffusion mechanism. The device allows for stable gradients over several days and is large enough to study the behaviour of large cell aggregates. We observe that primary mature dendritic cells respond uniformly to homogeneous diffusion gradients, while cell behaviour is highly position-dependent in spatially variable convection-diffusion gradients. In addition, we demonstrate a directed response of cancer cells migrating away from tumour-like aggregates in the presence of soluble chemokine gradients. Together, this microfluidic device is a powerful system to observe the response of different cells and aggregates to tuneable chemical gradients.
Mechanisms for fast cell migration in complex environments.
Vargas P, Barbier L, Sáez PJ, Piel M.
Curr Opin Cell Biol - 48 72-78 - DOI: 10.1016/j.ceb.2017.04.007 - 2017
Cell migration depends on a combination of the cell's intrinsic capacity to move and the proper interpretation of external cues. This multistep process enables leukocytes to travel long distances in organs in just a few hours. This fast migration is partly due to the leukocytes' high level of plasticity, which helps them to adapt to a changing environment. Here, we review recent progress in understanding the mechanisms used by leukocytes to move rapidly and efficiently in intricate anatomical landscapes. We shall focus on specific cytoskeletal rearrangements used by neutrophils and dendritic cells to migrate within confined environments. Lastly, we will describe the properties that facilitate the rapid migration of leukocyte in complex tissue geometries.
Fluorescence eXclusion Measurement of volume in live cells.
Cadart C, Zlotek-Zlotkiewicz E, Venkova L, Thouvenin O, Racine V, Le Berre M, Monnier S, Piel M.
Methods Cell Biol. - 139 103-120. - DOI: 10.1016/bs.mcb.2016.11.009 - 2017
Volume is a basic physical property of cells; however, it has been poorly investigated in cell biology so far, mostly because it is difficult to measure it precisely. Recently, large efforts were made to experimentally measure mammalian cell size and used mass, density, or volume as proxies for cell size. Here, we describe a method enabling cell volume measurements for single living cells. The method is based on the principle of fluorescent dye exclusion and can be easily implemented in cell biology laboratories. As this method is very versatile, it can be used for cells of different sizes, adherent or growing in suspension, over several cell cycles and is independent of cell shape changes. The method is also compatible with traditional cell biology tools such as epifluorescence imaging or drug treatments.
Fluorescence eXclusion Measurement of volume in live cells.
Lafaurie-Janvore J, Lafaurie C, Piel M.
Methods Cell Biol. - 137 137-203. - DOI: 10.1016/bs.mcb.2016.04.012 - 2017
The last step of cytokinesis, abscission, consists in the severing of the intercellular bridge connecting the two daughter cells. Because daughter cells move randomly on regular cell culture substrates, the use of adhesive micropatterns facilitates the observation of the intercellular bridge and its severing. Here we propose general rules to design micropatterns optimized to study this process. In particular, these micropatterns allow a good stabilization of the daughter cells and a predictable positioning of the intercellular bridge. We suggest a series of micropatterns controlling various cellular parameters such as distance between daughter cells or daughter cells polarization. We give recommendations for videomicroscopy acquisition during cell division and propose automated image analysis methods using kymograph analysis or bridge detection. Finally, we detail methods to artificially cut the intercellular bridge using UV-based laser ablation or using two-photons laser ablation.
Nano-on-Micro Fibrous Extracellular Matrices for Scalable Expansion of Human Es/Ips Cells
L. Liu, K.-i. Kamei, M. Yoshioka, M. Nakajima, J. Li, N. Fujimoto, S. Terada, Y. Tokunaga, Y. Koyama, H. Sato, K. Hasegawa, N. Nakatsuji and Y. Chen
Biomaterials - 124 47-54 - DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2017.01.039 - 2017
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) hold great potential for industrial and clinical applications. Clinical-grade scaffolds and high-quality hPSCs are required for cell expansion as well as easy handling and manipulation of the products. Current hPSC culture methods do not fulfill these requirements because of a lack of proper extracellular matrices (ECMs) and cell culture wares. We developed a layered nano-on-micro fibrous cellular matrix mimicking ECM, named "fiber-on-fiber (FF)" matrix, which enables easy handling and manipulation of cultured cells. While non-woven sheets of cellulose and polyglycolic acid were used as a microfiber layer facilitating mechanical stability, electrospun gelatin nanofibers were crosslinked on the microfiber layer, generating a mesh structure with connected nanofibers facilitating cell adhesion and growth. Our results showed that the FF matrix supports effective hPSC culture with maintenance of their pluripotency and normal chromosomes over two months, as well as effective scaled-up expansion, with fold increases of 54.1 ± 15.6 and 40.4 ± 8.4 in cell number per week for H1 human embryonic stem cells and 253G1 human induced pluripotent stem cells, respectively. This simple approach to mimick the ECM may have important implications after further optimization to generate lineage-specific products.

346 publications.