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Polymeric foams for flexible and highly sensitive low-pressure capacitive sensors
Mickaël Pruvost, Wilbert J Smit, Cécile Monteux, Philippe Poulin, Annie Colin
npj Flexible Electronics - 1 7 - - 2019
Flexible low-pressure sensors (< 10 kPa) are required in areas as diverse as blood-pressure monitoring, human–computer interactions, robotics, and object detection. For applications, it is essential that these sensors combine flexibility, high sensitivity, robustness, and low production costs. Previous works involve surface micro-patterning, electronic amplification (OFET), and hydrogels. However, these solutions are limited as they involve complex processes, large bias voltages, large energy consumption, or are sensitive to evaporation. Here, we report a major advance to solve the challenge of scalable, efficient and robust e-skin. We present an unconventional capacitive sensor based on composite foam materials filled with conductive carbon black particles. Owing to the elastic buckling of the foam pores, the sensitivity exceeds 35 kPa− 1 for pressure< 0.2 kPa. These performances are one order of magnitude …
Chasing Aqueous Biphasic Systems from Simple Salts by Exploring the LiTFSI/LiCl/H2O Phase Diagram
Nicolas Dubouis, Chanbum Park, Michael Deschamps, Soufiane Abdelghani-Idrissi, Matej Kanduč, Annie Colin, Mathieu Salanne, Joachim Dzubiella, Alexis Grimaud, Benjamin Rotenberg
ACS Central Science - 5 640-643 - - 2019
Aqueous biphasic systems (ABSs), in which two aqueous phases with different compositions coexist as separate liquids, were first reported more than a century ago with polymer solutions. Recent observations of ABS forming from concentrated mixtures of inorganic salts and ionic liquids raise the fundamental question of how “different” the components of such mixtures should be for a liquid–liquid phase separation to occur. Here we show that even two monovalent salts sharing a common cation (lithium) but with different anions, namely, LiCl and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI), may result in the formation of ABSs over a wide range of compositions at room temperature. Using a combination of experimental techniques and molecular simulations, we analyze the coexistence diagram and the mechanism driving the phase separation, arising from the different anion sizes. The understanding and …
Inkjet Printing of Latex‐Based High‐Energy Microcapacitors
Chasing Aqueous Biphasic Systems from Simple Salts by Exploring the LiTFSI/LiCl/H2O Phase Diagram N Dubouis, C Park, M Deschamps, S Abdelghani-Idrissi, M Kanduč, ... ACS Central Science 5 (4), 640-643
Advanced Functional Materials - 1901884 - - 2019
Microenergy storage devices are appealing and highly demanded for diverse miniaturized electronic devices, ranging from microelectromechanical system, robotics, to sensing microsystems and wearable electronics. However, making high‐energy microcapacitors with currently available printing technologies remains challenging. Herein, the possibility to use latex polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as aqueous ink for making dielectric capacitors at the microscale is shown. The dielectric properties of printed microcapacitors can be optimized based on a novel approach, i.e., mixing PVDF latex with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to realize dielectric organic nanocomposites. The PVA prevents the coalescence of PVDF nanoparticles and serves as a continuous matrix phase with high dielectric breakdown strength. While the well‐dispersed PVDF nanoparticles serve as highly polarizable and isolated domains, providing large
A new way to measure viscosity in droplet-based microfluidics for high throughput analysis
Estelle André, Nicolas Pannacci, Christine Dalmazzone, Annie Colin
Soft Matter - 3 504-514 - - 2019
In this work, we propose a new way to measure the viscosity of samples in a microfluidic device. By analysing the shape of droplets after an expansion, we can measure the viscosity of the phase inside the droplet knowing the surface tension between the two liquids, the flow rate, the geometry of the channel and the viscosity of the continuous phase. This work paves the way for future high throughput studies in the framework of digital microfluidics.
Synthesis of benzaldehyde with high selectivity using immobilized AuNPs and AuNPs@zeolite in a catalytic microfluidic system
Xi Rao, ORCID logo, Ali Abou Hassan, Cédric Guyon, Erick Osvaldo Martinez Ruiz, Michaël Tatoulianb and Stephanie Ognier
Lab. Chip - 17 - DOI: 10.1039/c9lc00386j - 2019
In the present work, gold based catalysts were synthesized and immobilized on the surface of cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) microreactors. The microreactors were subsequently applied in a homemade microfluidic system for synthesizing benzaldehyde by oxidation of benzyl alcohol in water medium. The Au nanoparticles (NPs) immobilized on the inner surface of the microchannel showed a very high selectivity (94%) for benzaldehyde, while zeolite NPs exhibited only an adsorption feature to this reaction. Moreover, the results showed that the AuNP catalytic activity was maintained for at least 9 hours. However, the obtained conversion with AuNPs was only 20%, indicating a relatively low productivity. In comparison, AuNPs assembled on the surface of zeolite NPs (AuNPs@zeolite) and immobilized in the microchannel showed the best catalytic performance, as the highest benzaldehyde selectivity (>99%) with a relatively high benzyl alcohol conversion of 42.4% was achieved under the same conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example demonstrating the use of AuNP or AuNP@zeolite catalysts in a microsystem performing such high selectivity for benzaldehyde in water medium.

Innate control of actin nucleation determines two distinct migration behaviours in dendritic cells.
Vargas P, Maiuri P, Bretou M, Sáez PJ, Pierobon P, Maurin M, Chabaud M, Lankar D, Obino D, Terriac E, Raab M, Thiam H-R, Brocker T, Kitchen-Goosen SM, Alberts AS, Sunareni P, Xia S, Li R, Voituriez R, Piel M, Lennon-Duménil A-M
Nat. Cell Biol. - 18(1): 43-53 - DOI: 10.1016/j.jim.2015.12.005 - 2019
Dendritic cell (DC) migration in peripheral tissues serves two main functions: antigen sampling by immature DCs, and chemokine-guided migration towards lymphatic vessels (LVs) on maturation. These migratory events determine the efficiency of the adaptive immune response. Their regulation by the core cell locomotion machinery has not been determined. Here, we show that the migration of immature DCs depends on two main actin pools: a RhoA-mDia1-dependent actin pool located at their rear, which facilitates forward locomotion; and a Cdc42-Arp2/3-dependent actin pool present at their front, which limits migration but promotes antigen capture. Following TLR4-MyD88-induced maturation, Arp2/3-dependent actin enrichment at the cell front is markedly reduced. Consequently, mature DCs switch to a faster and more persistent mDia1-dependent locomotion mode that facilitates chemotactic migration to LVs and lymph nodes. Thus, the differential use of actin-nucleating machineries optimizes the migration of immature and mature DCs according to their specific function.
Optical volume and mass measurements show that mammalian cells swell during mitosis.
Zlotek-Zlotkiewicz E, Monnier S, Cappello G, Le Berre M, Piel M
J. Cell Biol. - 211( 4): 765-74 - DOI: 10.1016/j.jim.2015.12.005 - 2019
The extent, mechanism, and function of cell volume changes during specific cellular events, such as cell migration and cell division, have been poorly studied, mostly because of a lack of adequate techniques. Here we unambiguously report that a large range of mammalian cell types display a significant increase in volume during mitosis (up to 30%). We further show that this increase in volume is tightly linked to the mitotic state of the cell and not to its spread or rounded shape and is independent of the presence of an intact actomyosin cortex. Importantly, this volume increase is not accompanied by an increase in dry mass and thus corresponds to a decrease in cell density. This mitotic swelling might have important consequences for mitotic progression: it might contribute to produce strong pushing forces, allowing mitotic cells to round up; it might also, by lowering cytoplasmic density, contribute to the large change of physicochemical properties observed in mitotic cells.
Actin Flows Mediate a Universal Coupling between Cell Speed and Cell Persistence.
Maiuri P, Rupprecht J-F, Wieser S, Ruprecht V, Bénichou O, Carpi N, Coppey M, De Beco S, Gov N, Heisenberg C-P, Lage Crespo C, Lautenschlaeger F, Le Berre M, Lennon-Dumenil A-M, Raab M, Thiam H-R, Piel M, Sixt M, Voituriez R
Cell - 161(2) 374-86 - DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2015.01.056 - 2019
Cell movement has essential functions in development, immunity, and cancer. Various cell migration patterns have been reported, but no general rule has emerged so far. Here, we show on the basis of experimental data in vitro and in vivo that cell persistence, which quantifies the straightness of trajectories, is robustly coupled to cell migration speed. We suggest that this universal coupling constitutes a generic law of cell migration, which originates in the advection of polarity cues by an actin cytoskeleton undergoing flows at the cellular scale. Our analysis relies on a theoretical model that we validate by measuring the persistence of cells upon modulation of actin flow speeds and upon optogenetic manipulation of the binding of an actin regulator to actin filaments. Beyond the quantitative prediction of the coupling, the model yields a generic phase diagram of cellular trajectories, which recapitulates the full range of observed migration patterns.
Deterministic patterns in cell motility
Ido Lavi, Matthieu Piel, Ana-Maria Lennon-Duménil , Raphaël Voituriez and Nir S. Gov
Nature Physics - 12 1146–1152 - DOI: : 10.1038/NPHYS3836 - 2019
Cell migration paths are generally described as random walks, associated with both intrinsic and extrinsic noise. However, complex cell locomotion is not merely related to such fluctuations, but is often determined by the underlying machinery. Cell motility is driven mechanically by actin and myosin, two molecular components that generate contractile forces. Other cell functions make use of the same components and, therefore, will compete with the migratory apparatus. Here, we propose a physical model of such a competitive system, namely dendritic cells whose antigen capture function and migratory ability are coupled by myosin II. The model predicts that this coupling gives rise to a dynamic instability, whereby cells switch from persistent migration to unidirectional self-oscillation, through a Hopf bifurcation. Cells can then switch to periodic polarity reversals through a homoclinic bifurcation. These predicted dynamic regimes are characterized by robust features that we identify through in vitro trajectories of dendritic cells over long timescales and distances. We expect that competition for limited resources in other migrating cell types can lead to similar deterministic migration modes.
Polarization of Myosin II Refines Tissue Material Properties to Buffer Mechanical Stress.
Duda M, Kirkland NJ, Khalilgharibi N, Tozluoglu M, Yuen AC, Carpi N, Bove A, Piel M, Charras G, Baum B, Mao Y.
Dev Cell - 48(2) 245-260. - doi: 10.1016/j.devcel.2018.12.020. - 2019
As tissues develop, they are subjected to a variety of mechanical forces. Some of these forces are instrumental in the development of tissues, while others can result in tissue damage. Despite our extensive understanding of force-guided morphogenesis, we have only a limited understanding of how tissues prevent further morphogenesis once the shape is determined after development. Here, through the development of a tissue-stretching device, we uncover a mechanosensitive pathway that regulates tissue responses to mechanical stress through the polarization of actomyosin across the tissue. We show that stretch induces the formation of linear multicellular actomyosin cables, which depend on Diaphanous for their nucleation. These stiffen the epithelium, limiting further changes in shape, and prevent fractures from propagating across the tissue. Overall, this mechanism of force-induced changes in tissue mechanical properties provides a general model of force buffering that serves to preserve the shape of tissues under conditions of mechanical stress.

410 publications.