Université PSL



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A computational mechanics approach to assess the link between cell morphology and forces during confined migration.
Aubry D, Thiam H, Piel M, Allena R
Biomech Model Mechanobiol - 14(1): 143-57 - DOI: 10.1016/bs.mcb.2014.11.007 - 2015
Confined migration plays a fundamental role during several biological phenomena such as embryogenesis, immunity and tumorogenesis. Here, we propose a two-dimensional mechanical model to simulate the migration of a HeLa cell through a micro-channel. As in our previous works, the cell is modelled as a continuum and a standard Maxwell model is used to describe the mechanical behaviour of both the cytoplasm (including active strains) and the nucleus. The cell cyclically protrudes and contracts and develops viscous forces to adhere to the substrate. The micro-channel is represented by two rigid walls, and it exerts an additional viscous force on the cell boundaries. We test four channels whose dimensions in terms of width are i) larger than the cell diameter, ii) sub-cellular, ii) sub-nuclear and iv) much smaller than the nucleus diameter. The main objective of the work is to assess the necessary conditions for the cell to enter into the channel and migrate through it. Therefore, we evaluate both the evolution of the cell morphology and the cell-channel and cell-substrate surface forces, and we show that there exists a link between the two, which is the essential parameter determining whether the cell is permeative, invasive or penetrating.
Confinement and low adhesion induce fast amoeboid migration of slow mesenchymal cells.
Liu Y-J, Le Berre M, Lautenschlaeger F, Maiuri P, Callan-Jones A, Heuzé M, Takaki T, Voituriez R, Piel M
Cell - 160( 4): 659-72 - DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2015.01.007 - 2015
The mesenchymal-amoeboid transition (MAT) was proposed as a mechanism for cancer cells to adapt their migration mode to their environment. While the molecular pathways involved in this transition are well documented, the role of the microenvironment in the MAT is still poorly understood. Here, we investigated how confinement and adhesion affect this transition. We report that, in the absence of focal adhesions and under conditions of confinement, mesenchymal cells can spontaneously switch to a fast amoeboid migration phenotype. We identified two main types of fast migration-one involving a local protrusion and a second involving a myosin-II-dependent mechanical instability of the cell cortex that leads to a global cortical flow. Interestingly, transformed cells are more prone to adopt this fast migration mode. Finally, we propose a generic model that explains migration transitions and predicts a phase diagram of migration phenotypes based on three main control parameters: confinement, adhesion, and contractility.
Laser induced wounding of the plasma membrane and methods to study the repair process.
Jimenez AJ, Maiuri P, Lafaurie-Janvore J, Perez F, Piel M
Methods Cell Biol. - 5.2083333333 391-408 - DOI: 10.1016/bs.mcb.2014.11.007 - 2015
Cells are constantly exposed to agents that can trigger the perforation of their plasma membrane. This damage occurs naturally, and the frequency and intensity depends on how much cells are exposed to damaging threats. The following protocol is a simple and powerful method to damage the plasma membrane using laser ablation. It allows the induction of a single and localized wound at the plasma membrane of cultured cells, which can be followed with fast time-lapse imaging. The first part of the protocol describes simple cell culture techniques and the material ideal to make the experiments. A second part of the protocol gives advice about the procedures to make effective wounds in cells while ensuring a good survival rate. We also propose different ways to follow the opening and closure of the plasma membrane. Finally, we describe the procedure to efficiently analyze the data acquired after single cell photodamage to characterize the wounding process.
Cell migration and antigen capture are antagonistic processes coupled by myosin II in dendritic cells.
Chabaud M, Heuzé ML, Bretou M, Vargas P, Maiuri P, Solanes P, Maurin M, Terriac E, Le Berre M, Lankar D, Piolot T, Adelstein RS, Zhang Y, Sixt M, Jacobelli J, Bénichou O, Voituriez R, Piel M, Lennon-Duménil A-M
Nat Commun - 0.25 7526 - DOI: 110.1016/j.jim.2015.12.005 - 2015
The immune response relies on the migration of leukocytes and on their ability to stop in precise anatomical locations to fulfil their task. How leukocyte migration and function are coordinated is unknown. Here we show that in immature dendritic cells, which patrol their environment by engulfing extracellular material, cell migration and antigen capture are antagonistic. This antagonism results from transient enrichment of myosin IIA at the cell front, which disrupts the back-to-front gradient of the motor protein, slowing down locomotion but promoting antigen capture. We further highlight that myosin IIA enrichment at the cell front requires the MHC class II-associated invariant chain (Ii). Thus, by controlling myosin IIA localization, Ii imposes on dendritic cells an intermittent antigen capture behaviour that might facilitate environment patrolling. We propose that the requirement for myosin II in both cell migration and specific cell functions may provide a general mechanism for their coordination in time and space.
How to control proteins with light in living systems
Gautier A., Gauron C., Volovitch M., Bensimon D., Jullien L. and Vriz S.
Nature Chemical Biology - 10 (2014) 33–541 - DOI::10.1038/nchembio.1534 - 2014
The possibility offered by photocontrolling the activity of biomolecules in vivo while recording physiological parameters is opening up new opportunities for the study of physiological processes at the single-cell level in a living organism. For the last decade, such tools have been mainly used in neuroscience, and their application in freely moving animals has revolutionized this field. New photochemical approaches enable the control of various cellular processes by manipulating a wide range of protein functions in a noninvasive way and with unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution. We are at a pivotal moment where biologists can adapt these cutting-edge technologies to their system of study. This user-oriented review presents the state of the art and highlights technical issues to be resolved in the near future for wide and easy use of these powerful approaches.
RACK1 controls IRES-mediated translation of viruses
Majzoub K., Hafirassou M.L, Meignin C., Goto A., Marzi S., Fedorova A., Verdier Y., Vinh J., Hoffmann J.A, Martin F., Baumert T.F, Schuster C., Imler J.L
Cell - 159(5) 1086-95 - DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2014.10.041 - 2014
Fighting viral infections is hampered by the scarcity of viral targets and their variability, resulting in development of resistance. Viruses depend on cellular molecules-which are attractive alternative targets-for their life cycle, provided that they are dispensable for normal cell functions. Using the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, we identify the ribosomal protein RACK1 as a cellular factor required for infection by internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-containing viruses. We further show that RACK1 is an essential determinant for hepatitis C virus translation and infection, indicating that its function is conserved for distantly related human and fly viruses. Inhibition of RACK1 does not affect Drosophila or human cell viability and proliferation, and RACK1-silenced adult flies are viable, indicating that this protein is not essential for general translation. Our findings demonstrate a specific function for RACK1 in selective mRNA translation and uncover a target for the development of broad antiviral intervention.
Interplay of RhoA and mechanical forces in collective cell migration driven by leader cells
M. Reffay, M. C. Parrini, O. Cochet-Escartin, B. Ladoux, A. Buguin, S. Coscoy, F. Amblard, J. Camonis and P. Silberzan
Nat. Cell Biol. - 16 (2014) 217–223 - DOI:10.1038/ncb2917 - 2014
The leading front of a collectively migrating epithelium often destabilizes into multicellular migration fingers where a cell initially similar to the others becomes a leader cell while its neighbours do not alter. The determinants of these leader cells include mechanical and biochemical cues, often under the control of small GTPases. However, an accurate dynamic cartography of both mechanical and biochemical activities remains to be established. Here, by mapping the mechanical traction forces exerted on the surface by MDCK migration fingers, we show that these structures are mechanical global entities with the leader cells exerting a large traction force. Moreover, the spatial distribution of RhoA differential activity at the basal plane strikingly mirrors this force cartography. We propose that RhoA controls the development of these fingers through mechanical cues: the leader cell drags the structure and the peripheral pluricellular acto-myosin cable prevents the initiation of new leader cells.
Power transduction of actin filaments ratcheting in vitro against a load
Démoulin D., Carlier M.F, Bibette J. and Baudry J.
Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA - Vol.111(n°50) 17845-50 - DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1414184111 - 2014
The actin cytoskeleton has the unique capability of producing pushing forces at the leading edge of motile cells without the implication of molecular motors. This phenomenon has been extensively studied theoretically, and molecular models, including the widely known Brownian ratchet, have been proposed. However, supporting experimental work is lacking, due in part to hardly accessible molecular length scales. We designed an experiment to directly probe the mechanism of force generation in a setup where a population of actin filaments grows against a load applied by magnetic microparticles. The filaments, arranged in stiff bundles by fascin, are constrained to point toward the applied load. In this protrusion-like geometry, we are able to directly measure the velocity of filament elongation and its dependence on force. Using numerical simulations, we provide evidence that our experimental data are consistent with a Brownian ratchet-based model. We further demonstrate the existence of a force regime far below stalling where the mechanical power transduced by the ratcheting filaments to the load is maximal. The actin machinery in migrating cells may tune the number of filaments at the leading edge to work in this force regime.
Single-molecule dynamics of enhanceosome assembly in embryonic stem cells
Chen J., Zhang Z., Li L., Chen B.C, Revyakin A., Hajj B., Legant W., Dahan M., Lionnet T., Betzig E., Tjian R. and Liu Z.
Cell - 156(6) 1274-85 - DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2014.01.062 - 2014
Enhancer-binding pluripotency regulators (Sox2 and Oct4) play a seminal role in embryonic stem (ES) cell-specific gene regulation. Here, we combine in vivo and in vitro single-molecule imaging, transcription factor (TF) mutagenesis, and ChIP-exo mapping to determine how TFs dynamically search for and assemble on their cognate DNA target sites. We find that enhanceosome assembly is hierarchically ordered with kinetically favored Sox2 engaging the target DNA first, followed by assisted binding of Oct4. Sox2/Oct4 follow a trial-and-error sampling mechanism involving 84-97 events of 3D diffusion (3.3-3.7 s) interspersed with brief nonspecific collisions (0.75-0.9 s) before acquiring and dwelling at specific target DNA (12.0-14.6 s). Sox2 employs a 3D diffusion-dominated search mode facilitated by 1D sliding along open DNA to efficiently locate targets. Our findings also reveal fundamental aspects of gene and developmental regulation by fine-tuning TF dynamics and influence of the epigenome on target search parameters.
Magneto-fluorescent core-shell supernanoparticles
Ou Chen, Lars Riedemann, Fred Etoc, Hendrik Herrmann, Mathieu Coppey, Mariya Barch, Christian T. Farrar, Jing Zhao, Oliver T. Bruns, He Wei, Peng Guo, Jian Cui, Russ Jensen, Yue Chen, Daniel K. Harris, Jose M. Cordero, Zhongwu Wang, Alan Jasanoff, Dai Fu
Nature Communications - 5 Article number:5093 - DOI:10.1038/ncomms6093 - 2014
Magneto-fluorescent particles have been recognized as an emerging class of materials that exhibit great potential in advanced applications. However, synthesizing such magneto-fluorescent nanomaterials that simultaneously exhibit uniform and tunable sizes, high magnetic content loading, maximized fluorophore coverage at the surface and a versatile surface functionality has proven challenging. Here we report a simple approach for co-assembling magnetic nanoparticles with fluorescent quantum dots to form colloidal magneto-fluorescent supernanoparticles. Importantly, these supernanoparticles exhibit a superstructure consisting of a close-packed magnetic nanoparticle ‘core’, which is fully surrounded by a ‘shell’ of fluorescent quantum dots. A thin layer of ​silica coating provides high colloidal stability and biocompatibility, and a versatile surface functionality. We demonstrate that after surface pegylation, these ​silica-coated magneto-fluorescent supernanoparticles can be magnetically manipulated inside living cells while being optically tracked. Moreover, our ​silica-coated magneto-fluorescent supernanoparticles can also serve as an in vivo multi-photon and magnetic resonance dual-modal imaging probe.

289 publications.