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Physics and technological aspects of nanofluidics
Lydéric Bocquet et Patrick Tabeling
Lab. Chip - 14 3143–3158 - DOI: 10.1039/c4lc00325j - 2014
From a physical perspective, nanofluidics represents an extremely rich domain. It hosts many mechanisms acting on the nanoscale, which combine together or interact with the confinement to generate new phenomena. Superfast flows in carbon nanotubes, nonlinear electrokinetic transport, slippage over smooth surfaces, nanobubble stability, etc. are the most striking phenomena that have been unveiled over the past few years, and some of them are still awaiting an explanation. One may anticipate that new nanofluidic effects will be discovered in the future, but at the moment, the technological barrier is high. Fabrication of nanochannels is most often a tour de force, slow and costly. However, with the accumulation of technological skills along with the use of new nanofluidic materials (like nanotubes), nanofluidics is becoming increasingly accessible to experimentalists. Among the technological challenges faced by the field, fabricating devices mimicking natural nanometric systems, such as aquaporins, ionic pumps or kidney osmotic filtering, seems the most demanding in terms of groundbreaking ideas. Nanoflow characterization remains delicate, although considerable progress has been achieved over the past years. The targeted application of nanofluidics is not only in the field of genomics and membrane science - with disruptive developments to be expected for water purification, desalination, and energy harvesting - but also for oil and gas production from unconventional reservoirs. Today, in view of the markets that are targeted, nanofluidics may well impact the industry more than microfluidics; this would represent an unexpected paradox. These successes rely on using a variety of materials and technologies, using state-of-the-art nanofabrication, or low-tech inexpensive approaches. As a whole, nanofluidics is a fascinating field that is facing considerable challenges today. It possesses a formidable potential and offers much space for creative groundbreaking ideas.
Apparition de vitiligo sous biothérapie: une série de 12 cas
L Bocquet, P Tabeling
Lab. Chip - 14 3143–3158 - - 2014
ß-amyloid induces a dying-back process and remote trans-synaptic alterations in a microfluidic-based reconstructed neuronal network
Deleglise B, Magnifico S, Duplus E, Vaur P, Soubeyre V, Belle M, Vignes M, Viovy JL, Jacotot E, Peyrin JM and Brugg B
Acta Neuropathologica - 2 145 - DOI: 10.1186/s40478-014-0145-3 - 2014
INTRODUCTION: Recent histopathological studies have shown that neurodegenerative processes in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease develop along neuronal networks and that hallmarks could propagate trans-synaptically through neuronal pathways. The underlying molecular mechanisms are still unknown, and investigations have been impeded by the complexity of brain connectivity and the need for experimental models allowing a fine manipulation of the local microenvironment at the subcellular level.

RESULTS: In this study, we have grown primary cortical mouse neurons in microfluidic (μFD) devices to separate soma from axonal projections in fluidically isolated microenvironments, and applied β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides locally to the different cellular compartments. We observed that Aβ application to the somato-dendritic compartment triggers a "dying-back" process, involving caspase and NAD(+) signalling pathways, whereas exposure of the axonal/distal compartment to Aβ deposits did not induce axonal degeneration. In contrast, co-treatment with somatic sub-toxic glutamate and axonal Aβ peptide triggered axonal degeneration. To study the consequences of such subcellular/local Aβ stress at the network level we developed new μFD multi-chamber devices containing funnel-shaped micro-channels which force unidirectional axon growth and used them to recreate in vitro an oriented cortico-hippocampal pathway. Aβ application to the cortical somato-dendritic chamber leads to a rapid cortical pre-synaptic loss. This happens concomitantly with a post-synaptic hippocampal tau-phosphorylation which could be prevented by the NMDA-receptor antagonist, MK-801, before any sign of axonal and somato-dendritic cortical alteration.

CONCLUSION: Thanks to μFD-based reconstructed neuronal networks we evaluated the distant effects of local Aβ stress on neuronal subcompartments and networks. Our data indicates that distant neurotransmission modifications actively take part in the early steps of the abnormal mechanisms leading to pathology progression independently of local Aβ production. This offers new tools to decipher mechanisms underlying Braak's staging. Our data suggests that local Aβ can play a role in remote tauopathy by distant disturbance of neurotransmission, providing a putative mechanism underlying the spatiotemporal appearance of pretangles.
ESCRT Machinery Is Required for Plasma Membrane Repair
Ana Joaquina Jimenez, Paolo Maiuri, Julie Lafaurie-Janvore, Séverine Divoux, Matthieu Piel and Franck Perez
Science - Vol.343(n°6174) 1247136 - DOI: 10.1126/science.1247136 - 2014
Plasma membrane damage can be triggered by numerous phenomena, and efficient repair is essential for cell survival. Endocytosis, membrane patching, or extracellular budding can be used for plasma membrane repair. We found that endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT), involved previously in membrane budding and fission, plays a critical role in plasma membrane repair. ESCRT proteins were recruited within seconds to plasma membrane wounds. Quantitative analysis of wound closure kinetics coupled to mathematical modeling suggested that ESCRTs are involved in the repair of small wounds. Real-time imaging and correlative scanning electron microscopy (SEM) identified extracellular buds and shedding at the site of ESCRT recruitment. Thus, the repair of certain wounds is ensured by ESCRT-mediated extracellular shedding of wounded portions.
Exploring the function of cell shape and size during mitosis
Clotilde Cadart, Ewa Zlotek-Zlotkiewicz, Maël Le Berre, Matthieu Piel and Helen K. Matthews
Dev Cell - Vol.29(2) 159–169 - DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.devcel.2014.04.009 - 2014
Dividing cells almost always adopt a spherical shape. This is true of most eukaryotic cells lacking a rigid cell wall and is observed in tissue culture and single-celled organisms, as well as in cells dividing inside tissues. While the mechanisms underlying this shape change are now well described, the functional importance of the spherical mitotic cell for the success of cell division has been thus far scarcely addressed. Here we discuss how mitotic rounding contributes to spindle assembly and positioning, as well as the potential consequences of abnormal mitotic cell shape and size on chromosome segregation, tissue growth, and cancer.
RecG and UvsW catalyse robust DNA rewinding critical for stalled DNA replication fork rescue
Maria Manosas, Senthil K. Perumal, Piero R. Bianco, Felix Ritort, Stephen J. Benkovic and Vincent Croquette
Nature Communications - -4 2368 - DOI: 10.1038/ncomms3368 - 2013
Helicases that both unwind and rewind DNA have central roles in DNA repair and genetic recombination. In contrast to unwinding, DNA rewinding by helicases has proved difficult to characterize biochemically because of its thermodynamically downhill nature. Here we use single-molecule assays to mechanically destabilize a DNA molecule and follow, in real time, unwinding and rewinding by two DNA repair helicases, bacteriophage T4 UvsW and Escherichia coli RecG. We find that both enzymes are robust rewinding enzymes, which can work against opposing forces as large as 35 pN, revealing their active character. The generation of work during the rewinding reaction allows them to couple rewinding to DNA unwinding and/or protein displacement reactions central to the rescue of stalled DNA replication forks. The overall results support a general mechanism for monomeric rewinding enzymes.
Cell–cell contacts confine public goods diffusion inside Pseudomonas aeruginosa clonal microcolonies
Thomas Julou, Thierry Mora, Laurent Guillon, Vincent Croquette, Isabelle J. Schal, David Bensimon, and Nicolas Desprat
Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA - vol.110 (n°31) 12577–82 - DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1301428110 - 2013
he maintenance of cooperation in populations where public goods are equally accessible to all but inflict a fitness cost on individual producers is a long-standing puzzle of evolutionary biology. An example of such a scenario is the secretion of siderophores by bacteria into their environment to fetch soluble iron. In a planktonic culture, these molecules diffuse rapidly, such that the same concentration is experienced by all bacteria. However, on solid substrates, bacteria form dense and packed colonies that may alter the diffusion dynamics through cell–cell contact interactions. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa microcolonies growing on solid substrate, we found that the concentration of pyoverdine, a secreted iron chelator, is heterogeneous, with a maximum at the center of the colony. We quantitatively explain the formation of this gradient by local exchange between contacting cells rather than by global diffusion of pyoverdine. In addition, we show that this local trafficking modulates the growth rate of individual cells. Taken together, these data provide a physical basis that explains the stability of public goods production in packed colonies.
New Glycosidase Substrates for Droplet-Based Microfluidic Screening
Majdi Najah, Estelle Mayot, Putu Mahendra-Wijaya, Andrew D. Griffiths, Sylvain Ladame, and Antoine Drevelle
Anal. Chem. - 85 (20) 9807–14 - DOI: 10.1021/ac4022709 - 2013
Droplet-based microfluidics is a powerful technique allowing ultra-high-throughput screening of large libraries of enzymes or microorganisms for the selection of the most efficient variants. Most applications in droplet microfluidic screening systems use fluorogenic substrates to measure enzymatic activities with fluorescence readout. It is important, however, that there is little or no fluorophore exchange between droplets, a condition not met with most commonly employed substrates. Here we report the synthesis of fluorogenic substrates for glycosidases based on a sulfonated 7-hydroxycoumarin scaffold. We found that the presence of the sulfonate group effectively prevents leakage of the coumarin from droplets, no exchange of the sulfonated coumarins being detected over 24 h at 30 °C. The fluorescence properties of these substrates were characterized over a wide pH range, and their specificity was studied on a panel of relevant glycosidases (cellulases and xylanases) in microtiter plates. Finally, the β-d-cellobioside-6,8-difluoro-7-hydroxycoumarin-4-methanesulfonate substrate was used to assay cellobiohydrolase activity on model bacterial strains (Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis) in a droplet-based microfluidic format. These new substrates can be used to assay glycosidase activities in a wide pH range (4–11) and with incubation times of up to 24 h in droplet-based microfluidic systems.
Abnormal recruitment of extracellular matrix proteins by excess Notch3ECD: a new pathomechanism in CADASIL
Monet-Leprêtre M, Haddad I, Baron-Menguy C, Fouillot-Panchal M, Riani M, Domenga-Denier V, Dussaule C, Cognat E, Vinh J and Joutel A
Brain Oxford - (Pt 6) 1830-45 - DOI: 10.1093/brain/awt092 - 2013
Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, or CADASIL, one of the most common inherited small vessel diseases of the brain, is characterized by a progressive loss of vascular smooth muscle cells and extracellular matrix accumulation. The disease is caused by highly stereotyped mutations within the extracellular domain of the NOTCH3 receptor (Notch3(ECD)) that result in an odd number of cysteine residues. While CADASIL-associated NOTCH3 mutations differentially affect NOTCH3 receptor function and activity, they all are associated with early accumulation of Notch3(ECD)-containing aggregates in small vessels. We still lack mechanistic explanation to link NOTCH3 mutations with small vessel pathology. Herein, we hypothesized that excess Notch3(ECD) could recruit and sequester functionally important proteins within small vessels of the brain. We performed biochemical, nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and immunohistochemical analyses, using cerebral and arterial tissue derived from patients with CADASIL and mouse models of CADASIL that exhibit vascular lesions in the end- and early-stage of the disease, respectively. Biochemical fractionation of brain and artery samples demonstrated that mutant Notch3(ECD) accumulates in disulphide cross-linked detergent-insoluble aggregates in mice and patients with CADASIL. Further proteomic and immunohistochemical analyses identified two functionally important extracellular matrix proteins, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3 (TIMP3) and vitronectin (VTN) that are sequestered into Notch3(ECD)-containing aggregates. Using cultured cells, we show that increased levels or aggregation of Notch3 enhances the formation of Notch3(ECD)-TIMP3 complex, promoting TIMP3 recruitment and accumulation. In turn, TIMP3 promotes complex formation including NOTCH3 and VTN. In vivo, brain vessels from mice and patients with CADASIL exhibit elevated levels of both insoluble cross-linked and soluble TIMP3 species. Moreover, reverse zymography assays show a significant elevation of TIMP3 activity in the brain vessels from mice and patients with CADASIL. Collectively, our findings lend support to a Notch3(ECD) cascade hypothesis in CADASIL disease pathology, which posits that aggregation/accumulation of Notch3(ECD) in the brain vessels is a central event, promoting the abnormal recruitment of functionally important extracellular matrix proteins that may ultimately cause multifactorial toxicity. Specifically, our results suggest a dysregulation of TIMP3 activity, which could contribute to mutant Notch3(ECD) toxicity by impairing extracellular matrix homeostasis in small vessels.
Landscape of protein–protein interactions in Drosophila immune deficiency signaling during bacterial challenge
Hidehiro Fukuyamaa, Yann Verdierb, Yongsheng Guana, Chieko Makino-Okamuraa, Victoria Shilovaa, Xi Liua, E. Maksouda, J. Matsubayashia, I. Haddadb, K. Spirohne, K. Onof, C. Hetruc, J. Rossierb, Trey Idekerf, M. Boutrose, Joëlle Vinh and Jules A. Hoffmann
Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA - vol.110(n°26) 10717–22 - DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1304380110 - 2013
The Drosophila defense against pathogens largely relies on the activation of two signaling pathways: immune deficiency (IMD) and Toll. The IMD pathway is triggered mainly by Gram-negative bacteria, whereas the Toll pathway responds predominantly to Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. The activation of these pathways leads to the rapid induction of numerous NF-κB–induced immune response genes, including antimicrobial peptide genes. The IMD pathway shows significant similarities with the TNF receptor pathway. Recent evidence indicates that the IMD pathway is also activated in response to various noninfectious stimuli (i.e., inflammatory-like reactions). To gain a better understanding of the molecular machinery underlying the pleiotropic functions of this pathway, we first performed a comprehensive proteomics analysis to identify the proteins interacting with the 11 canonical members of the pathway initially identified by genetic studies. We identified 369 interacting proteins (corresponding to 291 genes) in heat-killed Escherichia coli-stimulated Drosophila S2 cells, 92% of which have human orthologs. A comparative analysis of gene ontology from fly or human gene annotation databases points to four significant common categories: (i) the NuA4, nucleosome acetyltransferase of H4, histone acetyltransferase complex, (ii) the switching defective/sucrose nonfermenting-type chromatin remodeling complex, (iii) transcription coactivator activity, and (iv) translation factor activity. Here we demonstrate that sumoylation of the IκB kinase homolog immune response-deficient 5 plays an important role in the induction of antimicrobial peptide genes through a highly conserved sumoylation consensus site during bacterial challenge. Taken together, the proteomics data presented here provide a unique avenue for a comparative functional analysis of proteins involved in innate immune reactions in flies and mammals.

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579 publications.