Université PSL



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Micromanipulation of daughter cells for the study of cytokinetic abscission
Lafaurie-Janvore J, Lafaurie C, Piel M.
Methods Cell Biol. - 137 187-203 - DOI: 10.1016/bs.mcb.2016.04.012 - 2017
The last step of cytokinesis, abscission, consists in the severing of the intercellular bridge connecting the two daughter cells. Because daughter cells move randomly on regular cell culture substrates, the use of adhesive micropatterns facilitates the observation of the intercellular bridge and its severing. Here we propose general rules to design micropatterns optimized to study this process. In particular, these micropatterns allow a good stabilization of the daughter cells and a predictable positioning of the intercellular bridge. We suggest a series of micropatterns controlling various cellular parameters such as distance between daughter cells or daughter cells polarization. We give recommendations for videomicroscopy acquisition during cell division and propose automated image analysis methods using kymograph analysis or bridge detection. Finally, we detail methods to artificially cut the intercellular bridge using UV-based laser ablation or using two-photons laser ablation.
Caveolin-1 Expression Increases upon Maturation in Dendritic Cells and Promotes Their Migration to Lymph Nodes Thereby Favoring the Induction of CD8 T Cell Responses.
Oyarce C, Cruz-Gomez S, Galvez-Cancino F, Vargas P, Moreau HD, Diaz-Valdivia N, Diaz J, Salazar-Onfray FA, Pacheco R, Lennon-Dumenil AM, Quest AFG, Lladser A
Front Immunol. - 13;8 1794 - doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.01794. - 2017
Dendritic cell (DC) trafficking from peripheral tissues to lymph nodes (LNs) is a key step required to initiate T cell responses against pathogens as well as tumors. In this context, cellular membrane protrusions and the actin cytoskeleton are essential to guide DC migration towards chemotactic signals. Caveolin-1 (CAV1) is a scaffolding protein that modulates signaling pathways leading to remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton and enhanced migration of cancer cells. However, whether CAV1 is relevant for DC function and specifically for DC migration to LNs is unknown. Here, we show that CAV1 expression is upregulated in DCs upon LPS- and TNF-α-induced maturation. CAV1 deficiency did not affect differentiation, maturation, or the ability of DCs to activate CD8+ T cells in vitro. However, CAV1-deficient (CAV1-/-) DCs displayed reduced in vivo trafficking to draining LNs in control and inflammatory conditions. In vitro, CAV1-/- DCs showed reduced directional migration in CCL21 gradients in transwell assays without affecting migration velocity in confined microchannels or three-dimensional collagen matrices. In addition, CAV1-/- DCs displayed reduced activation of the small GTPase Rac1, a regulator of actin cytoskeletal remodeling, and lower numbers of F-actin-forming protrusions. Furthermore, mice adoptively transferred with peptide-pulsed CAV1-/- DCs showed reduced CD8+ T cell responses and antitumor protection. Our results suggest that CAV1 promotes the activation of Rac1 and the formation of membrane protrusions that favor DC chemotactic trafficking toward LNs where they can initiate cytotoxic T cell responses.
Forcing Entry into the Nucleus.
Lomakin A, Nader G, Piel M.
Dev Cell - 43(5) 547-548 - doi: 10.1016/j.devcel.2017.11.015. - 2017
Nuclear pore complexes tightly regulate nucleo-cytoplasmic transport, controlling the nuclear concentration of several transcription factors. In a recent issue of Cell, Elosegui-Artola et al. (2017) show that nuclear deformation modulates the nuclear entry rates of YAP/TAZ via nuclear pore stretching, clarifying how forces affect gene transcription.
ATP promotes the fast migration of dendritic cells through the activity of pannexin 1 channels and P2X receptors.
Sáez PJ, Vargas P, Shoji KF, Harcha PA, Lennon-Duménil AM, Sáez JC.
Sci Signal. - 10(506) pii: eaah7107 - doi: 10.1126/scisignal.aah7107. - 2017
Upon its release from injured cells, such as infected, transformed, inflamed, or necrotic cells, extracellular adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) acts as a danger signal that recruits phagocytes, such as neutrophils, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs), to the site of injury. The sensing of extracellular ATP occurs through purinergic (P2) receptors. We investigated the cellular mechanisms linking purinergic signaling to DC motility. We found that ATP stimulated fast DC motility through an autocrine signaling loop, which was initiated by the activation of P2X7 receptors and further amplified by pannexin 1 (Panx1) channels. Upon stimulation of the P2X7 receptor by ATP, Panx1 contributed to fast DC motility by increasing the permeability of the plasma membrane, which resulted in supplementary ATP release. In the absence of Panx1, DCs failed to increase their speed of migration in response to ATP, despite exhibiting a normal P2X7 receptor-mediated Ca2+ response. In addition to DC migration, Panx1 channel- and P2X7 receptor-dependent signaling was further required to stimulate the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. In vivo, functional Panx1 channels were required for the homing of DCs to lymph nodes, although they were dispensable for DC maturation. These data suggest that P2X7 receptors and Panx1 channels are crucial players in the regulation of DC migration to endogenous danger signals.
UNC93B1 interacts with the calcium sensor STIM1 for efficient antigen cross-presentation in dendritic cells
Sophia Maschalidi, Paula Nunes-Hasler, Clarissa R Nascimento, Ignacio Sallent, Valérie Lannoy, Meriem Garfa-Traore, Nicolas Cagnard, Fernando E Sepulveda, Pablo Vargas, Ana-Maria Lennon-Duménil, Peter van Endert, Thierry Capiod, Nicolas Demaurex, Guillau
Nat Commun - 1640 - DOI : 10.1038/s41467-017-01601-5 - 2017
Dendritic cells (DC) have the unique ability to present exogenous antigens via the major histocompatibility complex class I pathway to stimulate naive CD8 T cells. In DCs with a non-functional mutation in Unc93b1 (3d mutation), endosomal acidification, phagosomal maturation, antigen degradation, antigen export to the cytosol and the function of the store-operated-Ca-entry regulator STIM1 are impaired. These defects result in compromised antigen cross-presentation and anti-tumor responses in 3d-mutated mice. Here, we show that UNC93B1 interacts with the calcium sensor STIM1 in the endoplasmic reticulum, a critical step for STIM1 oligomerization and activation. Expression of a constitutively active STIM1 mutant, which no longer binds UNC93B1, restores antigen degradation and cross-presentation in 3d-mutated DCs. Furthermore, ablation of STIM1 in mouse and human cells leads to a decrease in cross-presentation. Our data indicate that the UNC93B1 and STIM1 cooperation is important for calcium flux and antigen cross-presentation in DCs
Nano-on-Micro Fibrous Extracellular Matrices for Scalable Expansion of Human Es/Ips Cells
L. Liu, K.-i. Kamei, M. Yoshioka, M. Nakajima, J. Li, N. Fujimoto, S. Terada, Y. Tokunaga, Y. Koyama, H. Sato, K. Hasegawa, N. Nakatsuji and Y. Chen
Biomaterials - 124 47-54 - DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2017.01.039 - 2017
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) hold great potential for industrial and clinical applications. Clinical-grade scaffolds and high-quality hPSCs are required for cell expansion as well as easy handling and manipulation of the products. Current hPSC culture methods do not fulfill these requirements because of a lack of proper extracellular matrices (ECMs) and cell culture wares. We developed a layered nano-on-micro fibrous cellular matrix mimicking ECM, named "fiber-on-fiber (FF)" matrix, which enables easy handling and manipulation of cultured cells. While non-woven sheets of cellulose and polyglycolic acid were used as a microfiber layer facilitating mechanical stability, electrospun gelatin nanofibers were crosslinked on the microfiber layer, generating a mesh structure with connected nanofibers facilitating cell adhesion and growth. Our results showed that the FF matrix supports effective hPSC culture with maintenance of their pluripotency and normal chromosomes over two months, as well as effective scaled-up expansion, with fold increases of 54.1 ± 15.6 and 40.4 ± 8.4 in cell number per week for H1 human embryonic stem cells and 253G1 human induced pluripotent stem cells, respectively. This simple approach to mimick the ECM may have important implications after further optimization to generate lineage-specific products.
Topological defects in confined populations of spindle-shaped cells
Guillaume Duclos, Christoph Erlenkämper, Jean-François Joanny & Pascal Silberzan
Nature Physics - 16 (2014) 217–223 - DOI:10.1038/nphys3876 - 2016
Most spindle-shaped cells (including smooth muscles and sarcomas) organize in vivo into well-aligned ‘nematic’ domains1, 2, 3, creating intrinsic topological defects that may be used to probe the behaviour of these active nematic systems. Active non-cellular nematics have been shown to be dominated by activity, yielding complex chaotic flows4, 5. However, the regime in which live spindle-shaped cells operate, and the importance of cell–substrate friction in particular, remains largely unexplored. Using in vitro experiments, we show that these active cellular nematics operate in a regime in which activity is effectively damped by friction, and that the interaction between defects is controlled by the system’s elastic nematic energy. Due to the activity of the cells, these defects behave as self-propelled particles and pairwise annihilate until all displacements freeze as cell crowding increases6, 7. When confined in mesoscopic circular domains, the system evolves towards two identical +1/2 disclinations facing each other. The most likely reduced positions of these defects are independent of the size of the disk, the cells’ activity or even the cell type, but are well described by equilibrium liquid crystal theory. These cell-based systems thus operate in a regime more stable than other active nematics, which may be necessary for their biological function.
Efficient laboratory evolution of computationally designed enzymes with low starting activities using fluorescence-activated droplet sorting
Obexer R, Pott M, Zeymer C, Griffiths A, Hilvert D.
Protein Eng Des Sel - 29(9) 355-66 - doi: 10.1093/protein/gzw032 - 2016
De novo biocatalysts with non-natural functionality are accessible by computational enzyme design. The catalytic activities obtained for the initial designs are usually low, but can be optimized significantly by directed evolution. Nevertheless, rate accelerations approaching the level of natural enzymes can only be achieved over many rounds of tedious and time-consuming laboratory evolution. In this work, we show that microfluidic-based screening using fluorescence-activated droplet sorting (FADS) is ideally suited for efficient optimization of designed enzymes with low starting activity, essentially straight out of the computer. We chose the designed retro-aldolase RA95.0, which had been previously evolved by conventional microtiter plate screening, as an example and reoptimized it using the microfluidic-based assay. Our results show that FADS is sufficiently sensitive to detect enzyme activities as low as kcat/Km = 0.5 M(-1)s(-1) The ultra-high throughput of this system makes screening of large mutant libraries possible in which clusters of up to five residues are randomized simultaneously. Thus, combinations of beneficial mutations can be identified directly, leading to large jumps in catalytic activity of up to 80-fold within a single round of evolution. By exploring several evolutionary trajectories in parallel, we identify alternative active site arrangements that exhibit comparably enhanced efficiency but opposite enantioselectivity
Hierarchy and extremes in selections from pools of randomized proteins
Boyer S, Biswas D, Kumar Soshee A, Scaramozzino N, Nizak C2, Rivoire O.
Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA - 113(13) 3482-7 - doi: 10.1073/pnas. - 2016
Variation and selection are the core principles of Darwinian evolution, but quantitatively relating the diversity of a population to its capacity to respond to selection is challenging. Here, we examine this problem at a molecular level in the context of populations of partially randomized proteins selected for binding to well-defined targets. We built several minimal protein libraries, screened them in vitro by phage display, and analyzed their response to selection by high-throughput sequencing. A statistical analysis of the results reveals two main findings. First, libraries with the same sequence diversity but built around different "frameworks" typically have vastly different responses; second, the distribution of responses of the best binders in a library follows a simple scaling law. We show how an elementary probabilistic model based on extreme value theory rationalizes the latter finding. Our results have implications for designing synthetic protein libraries, estimating the density of functional biomolecules in sequence space, characterizing diversity in natural populations, and experimentally investigating evolvability (i.e., the potential for future evolution).
Lineage Tracking for Probing Heritable Phenotypes at Single-Cell Resolution
Denis Cottinet , Florence Condamine, Nicolas Bremond, Andrew D. Griffiths, Paul B. Rainey, J. Arjan G. M. de Visser, Jean Baudry, Jérôme Bibette
Nature Biotechnology - 11(4) e0152395 - doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0152395 - 2016
Determining the phenotype and genotype of single cells is central to understand microbial evolution. DNA sequencing technologies allow the detection of mutants at high resolution, but similar approaches for phenotypic analyses are still lacking. We show that a drop-based millifluidic system enables the detection of heritable phenotypic changes in evolving bacterial populations. At time intervals, cells were sampled and individually compartmentalized in 100 nL drops. Growth through 15 generations was monitored using a fluorescent protein reporter. Amplification of heritable changes–via growth–over multiple generations yields phenotypically distinct clusters reflecting variation relevant for evolution. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, we follow the evolution of Escherichia coli populations during 30 days of starvation. Phenotypic diversity was observed to rapidly increase upon starvation with the emergence of heritable phenotypes. Mutations corresponding to each phenotypic class were identified by DNA sequencing. This scalable lineage-tracking technology opens the door to large-scale phenotyping methods with special utility for microbiology and microbial population biology.

326 publications.