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Massive radius-dependent flow slippage in carbon nanotubes
Eleonora Secchi, Sophie Marbach, Antoine Niguès, Derek Stein, Alessandro Siria & Lydéric Bocquet
Nature - 537 210–213 - DOI: 10.1038/nature19315 - 2016
Measurements and simulations have found that water moves through carbon nanotubes at exceptionally high rates owing to nearly frictionless interfaces1, 2, 3, 4. These observations have stimulated interest in nanotube-based membranes for applications including desalination, nano-filtration and energy harvesting5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, yet the exact mechanisms of water transport inside the nanotubes and at the water–carbon interface continue to be debated11, 12 because existing theories do not provide a satisfactory explanation for the limited number of experimental results available so far13. This lack of experimental results arises because, even though controlled and systematic studies have explored transport through individual nanotubes7, 8, 9, 14, 15, 16, 17, none has met the considerable technical challenge of unambiguously measuring the permeability of a single nanotube11. Here we show that the pressure-driven flow rate through individual nanotubes can be determined with unprecedented sensitivity and without dyes from the hydrodynamics of water jets as they emerge from single nanotubes into a surrounding fluid. Our measurements reveal unexpectedly large and radius-dependent surface slippage in carbon nanotubes, and no slippage in boron nitride nanotubes that are crystallographically similar to carbon nanotubes, but electronically different. This pronounced contrast between the two systems must originate from subtle differences in the atomic-scale details of their solid–liquid interfaces, illustrating that nanofluidics is the frontier at which the continuum picture of fluid mechanics meets the atomic nature of matter.
A new microfluidic approach for the one-step capture, amplification and label-free quantification of bacteria from raw samples
Iago Pereiro, Amel Bendali, Sanae Tabnaoui, Lucile Alexandre, Jana Srbova, Zuzana Bilkova, Shane Deegan, Lokesh Joshi, Jean-Louis Viovy, Laurent Malaquin, Bruno Dupuy and Stéphanie Descroix
Chem. Sci. - 8(2) 1329-1336 - DOI: 10.1039/C6SC03880H - 2016
A microfluidic method to specifically capture and detect infectious bacteria based on immunorecognition and proliferative power is presented. It involves a microscale fluidized bed in which magnetic and drag forces are balanced to retain antibody-functionalized superparamagnetic beads in a chamber during sample perfusion. Captured cells are then cultivated in situ by infusing nutritionally-rich medium. The system was validated by the direct one-step detection of Salmonella Typhimurium in undiluted unskimmed milk, without pre-treatment. The growth of bacteria induces an expansion of the fluidized bed, mainly due to the volume occupied by the newly formed bacteria. This expansion can be observed with the naked eye, providing simple low-cost detection of only a few bacteria and in a few hours. The time to expansion can also be measured with a low-cost camera, allowing quantitative detection down to 4 cfu (colony forming unit), with a dynamic range of 100 to 107 cfu ml−1 in 2 to 8 hours, depending on the initial concentration. This mode of operation is an equivalent of quantitative PCR, with which it shares a high dynamic range and outstanding sensitivity and specificity, operating at the live cell rather than DNA level. Specificity was demonstrated by controls performed in the presence of a 500× excess of non-pathogenic Lactococcus lactis. The system's versatility was demonstrated by its successful application to the detection and quantitation of Escherichia coli O157:H15 and Enterobacter cloacae. This new technology allows fast, low-cost, portable and automated bacteria detection for various applications in food, environment, security and clinics.
Microfluidic model of the platelet-generating organ: beyond bone marrow biomimetics
Antoine Blin, Anne Le Goff, Aurélie Magniez, Sonia Poirault-Chassac, Bruno Teste, Géraldine Sicot, Kim Anh Nguyen, Feriel S. Hamdi, Mathilde Reyssat & Dominique Baruch
Nature - Scientific Reports 6 21700 - DOI: 10.1038/srep21700 - 2016
We present a new, rapid method for producing blood platelets in vitro from cultured megakaryocytes based on a microfluidic device. This device consists in a wide array of VWF-coated micropillars. Such pillars act as anchors on megakaryocytes, allowing them to remain trapped in the device and subjected to hydrodynamic shear. The combined effect of anchoring and shear induces the elongation of megakaryocytes and finally their rupture into platelets and proplatelets. This process was observed with megakaryocytes from different origins and found to be robust. This original bioreactor design allows to process megakaryocytes at high throughput (millions per hour). Since platelets are produced in such a large amount, their extensive biological characterisation is possible and shows that platelets produced in this bioreactor are functional.
Innate control of actin nucleation determines two distinct migration behaviours in dendritic cells.
Vargas P, Maiuri P, Bretou M, Sáez PJ, Pierobon P, Maurin M, Chabaud M, Lankar D, Obino D, Terriac E, Raab M, Thiam H-R, Brocker T, Kitchen-Goosen SM, Alberts AS, Sunareni P, Xia S, Li R, Voituriez R, Piel M, Lennon-Duménil A-M
Nat. Cell Biol. - 18(1): 43-53 - DOI: 10.1016/j.jim.2015.12.005 - 2016
Dendritic cell (DC) migration in peripheral tissues serves two main functions: antigen sampling by immature DCs, and chemokine-guided migration towards lymphatic vessels (LVs) on maturation. These migratory events determine the efficiency of the adaptive immune response. Their regulation by the core cell locomotion machinery has not been determined. Here, we show that the migration of immature DCs depends on two main actin pools: a RhoA-mDia1-dependent actin pool located at their rear, which facilitates forward locomotion; and a Cdc42-Arp2/3-dependent actin pool present at their front, which limits migration but promotes antigen capture. Following TLR4-MyD88-induced maturation, Arp2/3-dependent actin enrichment at the cell front is markedly reduced. Consequently, mature DCs switch to a faster and more persistent mDia1-dependent locomotion mode that facilitates chemotactic migration to LVs and lymph nodes. Thus, the differential use of actin-nucleating machineries optimizes the migration of immature and mature DCs according to their specific function.
Deterministic patterns in cell motility
Ido Lavi, Matthieu Piel, Ana-Maria Lennon-Duménil , Raphaël Voituriez and Nir S. Gov
Nature Physics - 12 1146–1152 - DOI: : 10.1038/NPHYS3836 - 2016
Cell migration paths are generally described as random walks, associated with both intrinsic and extrinsic noise. However, complex cell locomotion is not merely related to such fluctuations, but is often determined by the underlying machinery. Cell motility is driven mechanically by actin and myosin, two molecular components that generate contractile forces. Other cell functions make use of the same components and, therefore, will compete with the migratory apparatus. Here, we propose a physical model of such a competitive system, namely dendritic cells whose antigen capture function and migratory ability are coupled by myosin II. The model predicts that this coupling gives rise to a dynamic instability, whereby cells switch from persistent migration to unidirectional self-oscillation, through a Hopf bifurcation. Cells can then switch to periodic polarity reversals through a homoclinic bifurcation. These predicted dynamic regimes are characterized by robust features that we identify through in vitro trajectories of dendritic cells over long timescales and distances. We expect that competition for limited resources in other migrating cell types can lead to similar deterministic migration modes.
Arc/Arg3.1 governs inflammatory dendritic cell migration from the skin and thereby controls T cell activation.
Ufer F, Vargas P, Engler JB, Tintelnot J, Schattling B, Winkler H, Bauer S,Kursawe N, Willing A, Keminer O, Ohana O, Salinas-Riester G, Pless O, Kuhl D, Friese MA.
Sci Immunol - 1(3) 8665 - doi: 10.1126/sciimmunol.aaf8665. - 2016
Skin-migratory dendritic cells (migDCs) are pivotal antigen-presenting cells that continuously transport antigens to draining lymph nodes and regulate immune responses. However, identification of migDCs is complicated by the lack of distinguishing markers, and it remains unclear which molecules determine their migratory capacity during inflammation. We show that, in the skin, the neuronal plasticity molecule activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein/activity-regulated gene 3.1 (Arc/Arg3.1) was strictly confined to migDCs. Mechanistically, Arc/Arg3.1 was required for accelerated DC migration during inflammation because it regulated actin dynamics through nonmuscle myosin II. Accordingly, Arc/Arg3.1-dependent DC migration was critical for mounting T cell responses in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and allergic contact dermatitis. Thus, Arc/Arg3.1 was restricted to migDCs in the skin and drove fast DC migration by exclusively coordinating cytoskeletal changes in response to inflammatory challenges. These findings commend Arc/Arg3.1 as a universal switch in migDCs that may be exploited to selectively modify immune responses.
Deterministic patterns in cell motility
Ido Lavi, Matthieu Piel, Ana-Maria Lennon-Duménil, Raphaël Voituriez & Nir S. Gov
Nature Physics - 12 1146–1152 - DOI : 10.1038/nphys3836 - 2016
Cell migration paths are generally described as random walks, associated with both intrinsic and extrinsic noise. However, complex cell locomotion is not merely related to such fluctuations, but is often determined by the underlying machinery. Cell motility is driven mechanically by actin and myosin, two molecular components that generate contractile forces. Other cell functions make use of the same components and, therefore, will compete with the migratory apparatus. Here, we propose a physical model of such a competitive system, namely dendritic cells whose antigen capture function and migratory ability are coupled by myosin II. The model predicts that this coupling gives rise to a dynamic instability, whereby cells switch from persistent migration to unidirectional self-oscillation, through a Hopf bifurcation. Cells can then switch to periodic polarity reversals through a homoclinic bifurcation. These predicted dynamic regimes are characterized by robust features that we identify through in vitro trajectories of dendritic cells over long timescales and distances. We expect that competition for limited resources in other migrating cell types can lead to similar deterministic migration modes.
On-Chip Quantitative Measurement of Mechanical Stresses During Cell Migration with Emulsion Droplets.
D Molino, S Quignard, C Gruget, F Pincet, Y Chen, M Piel, J Fattaccioli
Scientific Reports - 6 29113 - DOI : 10.1038/srep29113 - 2016
The ability of immune cells to migrate within narrow and crowded spaces is a critical feature involved in various physiological processes from immune response to metastasis. Several in-vitro techniques have been developed so far to study the behaviour of migrating cells, the most recent being based on the fabrication of microchannels within which cells move. To address the question of the mechanical stress a cell is able to produce during the encounter of an obstacle while migrating, we developed a hybrid microchip made of parallel PDMS channels in which oil droplets are sparsely distributed and serve as deformable obstacles. We thus show that cells strongly deform droplets while passing them. Then, we show that the microdevice can be used to study the influence of drugs on migration at the population level. Finally, we describe a quantitative analysis method of the droplet deformation that allows measuring in real-time the mechanical stress exerted by a single cell. The method presented herein thus constitutes a powerful analytical tool for cell migration studies under confinement.
On-Chip Quantitative Measurement of Mechanical Stresses During Cell Migration with Emulsion Droplets
D. Molino, S. Quignard, C. Gruget, F. Pincet, Y. Chen, M. Piel & J. Fattaccioli
Scientific Reports - 6 29113 - DOI: 10.1038/srep29113 - 2016
The ability of immune cells to migrate within narrow and crowded spaces is a critical feature involved in various physiological processes from immune response to metastasis. Several in-vitro techniques have been developed so far to study the behaviour of migrating cells, the most recent being based on the fabrication of microchannels within which cells move. To address the question of the mechanical stress a cell is able to produce during the encounter of an obstacle while migrating, we developed a hybrid microchip made of parallel PDMS channels in which oil droplets are sparsely distributed and serve as deformable obstacles. We thus show that cells strongly deform droplets while passing them. Then, we show that the microdevice can be used to study the influence of drugs on migration at the population level. Finally, we describe a quantitative analysis method of the droplet deformation that allows measuring in real-time the mechanical stress exerted by a single cell. The method presented herein thus constitutes a powerful analytical tool for cell migration studies under confinement.
Human Upf1 is a highly processive RNA helicase and translocase with RNP remodelling activities
Francesca Fiorini, Debjani Bagchi, Hervé Le Hir and Vincent Croquette
Nature Communications - Volume 6 (2015) Article number: 7581 - doi:10.1038/ncomms8581 - 2015
RNA helicases are implicated in most cellular RNA-dependent events. In eukaryotes however, only few have been functionally characterized. Upf1 is a RNA helicase essential for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). Here, using magnetic tweezers and bulk assays, we observe that human Upf1 is able to translocate slowly over long single-stranded nucleic acids with a processivity >10 kb. Upf1 efficiently translocates through double-stranded structures and protein-bound sequences, demonstrating that Upf1 is an efficient ribonucleoprotein complex remodeler. Our observation of processive unwinding by an eukaryotic RNA helicase reveals that Upf1, once recruited onto NMD mRNA targets, can scan the entire transcript to irreversibly remodel the mRNP, facilitating its degradation by the NMD machinery.

326 publications.