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Myosin II Activity Is Selectively Needed for Migration in Highly Confined Microenvironments in Mature Dendritic Cells.
Lucie Barbier, Pablo J Sáez, Rafaele Attia, Ana-Maria Lennon-Duménil, Ido Lavi, Matthieu Piel, Pablo Vargas
Frontiers in immunology - 747 - DOI : 10.3389/fimmu.2019.00747 - 2019
Upon infection, mature dendritic cells (mDCs) migrate from peripheral tissue to lymph nodes (LNs) to activate T lymphocytes and initiate the adaptive immune response. This fast and tightly regulated process is tuned by different microenvironmental factors, such as the physical properties of the tissue. Mechanistically, mDCs migration mostly relies on acto-myosin flow and contractility that depend on non-muscular Myosin IIA (MyoII) activity. However, the specific contribution of this molecular motor for mDCs navigation in complex microenvironments has yet to be fully established. Here, we identified a specific role of MyoII activity in the regulation of mDCs migration in highly confined microenvironments. Using microfluidic systems, we observed that during mDCs chemotaxis in 3D collagen gels under defined CCL21 gradients, MyoII activity was required to sustain their fast speed but not to orientate them toward the chemokine. Indeed, despite the fact that mDCs speed declined, these cells still migrated through the 3D gels, indicating that this molecular motor has a discrete function during their motility in this irregular microenvironment. Consistently, using microchannels of different sizes, we found that MyoII activity was essential to maintain fast cell speed specifically under strong confinement. Analysis of cell motility through micrometric holes further demonstrated that cell contractility facilitated mDCs passage only over very small gaps. Altogether, this work highlights that high contractility acts as an adaptation mechanism exhibited by mDCs to optimize their motility in restricted landscapes. Hence, MyoII activity ultimately facilitates their navigation in highly confined areas of structurally irregular tissues, contributing to the fine-tuning of their homing to LNs to initiate adaptive immune responses.
On-Chip Quantitative Measurement of Mechanical Stresses During Cell Migration with Emulsion Droplets
D. Molino, S. Quignard, C. Gruget, F. Pincet, Y. Chen, M. Piel & J. Fattaccioli
Scientific Reports - 6 29113 - DOI: 10.1038/srep29113 - 2019
The ability of immune cells to migrate within narrow and crowded spaces is a critical feature involved in various physiological processes from immune response to metastasis. Several in-vitro techniques have been developed so far to study the behaviour of migrating cells, the most recent being based on the fabrication of microchannels within which cells move. To address the question of the mechanical stress a cell is able to produce during the encounter of an obstacle while migrating, we developed a hybrid microchip made of parallel PDMS channels in which oil droplets are sparsely distributed and serve as deformable obstacles. We thus show that cells strongly deform droplets while passing them. Then, we show that the microdevice can be used to study the influence of drugs on migration at the population level. Finally, we describe a quantitative analysis method of the droplet deformation that allows measuring in real-time the mechanical stress exerted by a single cell. The method presented herein thus constitutes a powerful analytical tool for cell migration studies under confinement.
Nano-on-Micro Fibrous Extracellular Matrices for Scalable Expansion of Human Es/Ips Cells
L. Liu, K.-i. Kamei, M. Yoshioka, M. Nakajima, J. Li, N. Fujimoto, S. Terada, Y. Tokunaga, Y. Koyama, H. Sato, K. Hasegawa, N. Nakatsuji and Y. Chen
Biomaterials - 124 47-54 - DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2017.01.039 - 2019
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) hold great potential for industrial and clinical applications. Clinical-grade scaffolds and high-quality hPSCs are required for cell expansion as well as easy handling and manipulation of the products. Current hPSC culture methods do not fulfill these requirements because of a lack of proper extracellular matrices (ECMs) and cell culture wares. We developed a layered nano-on-micro fibrous cellular matrix mimicking ECM, named "fiber-on-fiber (FF)" matrix, which enables easy handling and manipulation of cultured cells. While non-woven sheets of cellulose and polyglycolic acid were used as a microfiber layer facilitating mechanical stability, electrospun gelatin nanofibers were crosslinked on the microfiber layer, generating a mesh structure with connected nanofibers facilitating cell adhesion and growth. Our results showed that the FF matrix supports effective hPSC culture with maintenance of their pluripotency and normal chromosomes over two months, as well as effective scaled-up expansion, with fold increases of 54.1 ± 15.6 and 40.4 ± 8.4 in cell number per week for H1 human embryonic stem cells and 253G1 human induced pluripotent stem cells, respectively. This simple approach to mimick the ECM may have important implications after further optimization to generate lineage-specific products.
RAB-35 and ARF-6 GTPases Mediate Engulfment and Clearance Following Linker Cell-Type Death
Kutscher LM, Keil W, Shaham S
Dev Cell - 47(2) 222-238 - doi: 10.1016/j.devcel.2018.08.015. - 2018
Clearance of dying cells is essential for development and homeostasis. Conserved genes mediate apoptotic cell removal, but whether these genes control non-apoptotic cell removal is a major open question. Linker cell-type death (LCD) is a prevalent non-apoptotic developmental cell death process with features conserved from C. elegans to vertebrates. Using microfluidics-based long-term in vivo imaging, we show that unlike apoptotic cells, the C. elegans linker cell, which dies by LCD, is competitively phagocytosed by two neighboring cells, resulting in cell splitting. Subsequent cell elimination does not require apoptotic engulfment genes. Rather, we find that RAB-35 GTPase is a key coordinator of competitive phagocytosis onset and cell degradation. RAB-35 binds CNT-1, an ARF-6 GTPase activating protein, and removes ARF-6, a degradation inhibitor, from phagosome membranes. This facilitates phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate removal from phagosome membranes, promoting phagolysosome maturation. Our studies suggest that RAB-35 and ARF-6 drive a conserved program eliminating cells dying by LCD.
Selection Dynamics in Transient Compartmentalization.
Blokhuis A, Lacoste D, Nghe P, Peliti L
Phys. Rev. Lett. - 158101 120(15): - doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004972 - 2018
Transient compartments have been recently shown to be able to maintain functional replicators in the context of prebiotic studies. Here, we show that a broad class of selection dynamics is able to achieve this goal. We identify two key parameters, the relative amplification of nonactive replicators (parasites) and the size of compartments. These parameters account for competition and diversity, and the results are relevant to similar multilevel selection problems, such as those found in virus-host ecology and trait group selection.
Coupled catabolism and anabolism in autocatalytic RNA sets.
Arsène S, Ameta S, Lehman N, Griffiths AD, Nghe P.
Nucleic Acids Res. - 46(18) 9660-9666 - doi: 10.1093/nar/gky598. - 2018
The ability to process molecules available in the environment into useable building blocks characterizes catabolism in contemporary cells and was probably critical for the initiation of life. Here we show that a catabolic process in collectively autocatalytic sets of RNAs allows diversified substrates to be assimilated. We modify fragments of the Azoarcus group I intron and find that the system is able to restore the original native fragments by a multi-step reaction pathway. This allows in turn the formation of catalysts by an anabolic process, eventually leading to the accumulation of ribozymes. These results demonstrate that rudimentary self-reproducing RNA systems based on recombination possess an inherent capacity to assimilate an expanded repertoire of chemical resources and suggest that coupled catabolism and anabolism could have arisen at a very early stage in primordial living systems.
Sign epistasis caused by hierarchy within signalling cascades
Nghe P, Kogenaru M, Tans SJ
Nat Commun - 1451 9660-9666 - 10.1038/s41467-018-03644-8. - 2018
The ability to process molecules available in the environment into useable building blocks characterizes catabolism in contemporary cells and was probably critical for the initiation of life. Here we show that a catabolic process in collectively autocatalytic sets of RNAs allows diversified substrates to be assimilated. We modify fragments of the Azoarcus group I intron and find that the system is able to restore the original native fragments by a multi-step reaction pathway. This allows in turn the formation of catalysts by an anabolic process, eventually leading to the accumulation of ribozymes. These results demonstrate that rudimentary self-reproducing RNA systems based on recombination possess an inherent capacity to assimilate an expanded repertoire of chemical resources and suggest that coupled catabolism and anabolism could have arisen at a very early stage in primordial living systems.
Selection Dynamics in Transient Compartmentalization
doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.158101
Phys. Rev. Lett. - 120 158101 - doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.158101 - 2018
Transient compartments have been recently shown to be able to maintain functional replicators in the context of prebiotic studies. Here, we show that a broad class of selection dynamics is able to achieve this goal. We identify two key parameters, the relative amplification of nonactive replicators (parasites) and the size of compartments. These parameters account for competition and diversity, and the results are relevant to similar multilevel selection problems, such as those found in virus-host ecology and trait group selection.
Interfacial transport with mobile surface charges and consequences for ionic transport in carbon nanotubes
Timothée Mouterde, Lydéric Bocquet
Eur. Phys. - 41 148 - doi.org/10.1140/epje/i2018-11760-2 - 2018
In this paper, we explore the effect of a finite surface charge mobility on the interfacial transport: conductance, streaming currents, electro- and diffusio-osmotic flows. We first show that the surface charge mobility modifies the hydrodynamic boundary condition for the fluid, which introduces a supplementary term depending on the applied electric field. In particular, the resulting slip length is found to decrease inversely with the surface charge. We then derive expressions for the various transport mobilities, highlighting that the surface charge mobility merely moderates the amplification effect of interfacial slippage, to the noticeable exception of diffusio-osmosis and surface conductance. Our calculations, obtained within Poisson-Boltzmann framework, highlight the importance of non-linear electrostatic contributions to predict the small concentration/large charge limiting regimes for the transport mobilities. We discuss these predictions in the context of recent electrokinetic experiments with carbon nanotubes.
Transport and dispersion across wiggling nano-pores
Sophie Marbach, David S. Dean & Lydéric Bocquet
Nature Physics - 14 1108–1113 - doi.org/10.1038/s41567-018-0239-0 - 2018
The transport of fluids at the nanoscale has achieved major breakthroughs over recent years1,2,3,4; however, artificial channels still cannot match the efficiency of biological porins in terms of fluxes or selectivity. Pore shape agitation—due to thermal fluctuations or in response to external stimuli—is believed to facilitate transport in biochannels5,6,7,8,9, but its impact on transport in artificial pores remains largely unexplored. Here we introduce a general theory for transport through thermally or actively fluctuating channels, which quantifies the impact of pore fluctuations on confined diffusion in terms of the spectral statistics of the channel fluctuations. Our findings demonstrate a complex interplay between transport and surface wiggling: agitation enhances diffusion via the induced fluid flow, but spatial variations in pore geometry can induce a slowing down via entropic trapping, in full agreement with molecular dynamics simulations and existing observations from the literature. Our results elucidate the impact of pore agitation in a broad range of artificial and biological porins, but also, at larger scales, in vascular motion in fungi, intestinal contractions and microfluidic surface waves. These results open up the possibility that transport across membranes can be actively tuned by external stimuli, with potential applications to nanoscale pumping, osmosis and dynamical ultrafiltration.

410 publications.