Université PSL



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Shear Rheology Control of Wrinkles and Patterns in Graphene Oxide Films
Franco Tardani, Wilfrid Neri, Cécile Zakri, Hamid Kellay, Annie Colin, Philippe Poulin
Langmuir - 9(34) 2996-3002 - - 2018
Drying graphene oxide (GO) films are subject to extensive wrinkling, which largely affects their final properties. Wrinkles were shown to be suitable in biotechnological applications; however, they negatively affect the electronic properties of the films. Here, we report on wrinkle tuning and patterning of GO films under stress-controlled conditions during drying. GO flakes assemble at an air–solvent interface; the assembly forms a skin at the surface and may bend due to volume shrinkage while drying. We applied a modification of evaporative lithography to spatially define the evaporative stress field. Wrinkle alignment is achieved over cm2 areas. The wavelength (i.e., wrinkle spacing) is controlled in the μm range by the film thickness and GO concentration. Furthermore, we propose the use of nanoparticles to control capillary forces to suppress wrinkling. An example of a controlled pattern is given to elucidate the …
All-organic microelectromechanical systems integrating electrostrictive nanocomposite for mechanical energy harvesting
Hussein Nesser, Hélène Debéda, Jinkai Yuan, Annie Colin, Philippe Poulin, Isabelle Dufour, Cédric Ayela
Nano energy - 44 43983 - - 2018
Recent advances in the field of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have generated great interest in the substitution of inorganic microcantilevers by organic ones, due to their low cost, high flexibility and a simplified fabrication by means of printing methods. Here, we present the integration of electrostrictive nanocomposites into organic microcantilever resonators specifically designed for mechanical energy harvesting from ambient vibrations. Strain sensitive nanocomposite materials composed of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) dispersed in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) are integrated into all-organic MEMS by means of an innovative low-cost and environment friendly process by combining printing techniques and xurography. Static tests of the electrostrictive nanocomposite with 3.7 wt% rGO show good performances with variations of capacitance that exceeds 4% for strain values lower than 0.55% as the …
Giant Electrostriction of Soft Nanocomposites Based on Liquid Crystalline Graphene
Jinkai Yuan, Alan Luna, Wilfrid Neri, Cécile Zakri, Annie Colin, Philippe Poulin
ACS nano - 12(2) 1688-1695 - - 2018
High electromechanical coupling is critical to perform effective conversion between mechanical and electrical energy for various applications of electrostrictive polymers. Herein, a giant electrostriction effect is reported in liquid crystalline graphene-doped dielectric elastomers. The materials are formulated by a phase-transfer method which allows the solubilization of graphenic monolayers in nonpolar solvents. Dielectric spectroscopy is combined with tensile test devices to measure the true electrostriction coefficients with differentiating the Maxwell stress effect. Because of their liquid crystal structure, the resultant composites show an ultralarge electrostriction coefficient (∼10–14 m2/V2 at 0.1 Hz) coupled with good reproducibility during cycles at high deformation rates. This work offers a promising pathway to design high-performance electrostrictive polymer composites as well as to provide insights into mechanisms …
Shear thinning in non-Brownian suspensions
Guillaume Chatté, Jean Comtet, Antoine Niguès, Lydéric Bocquet, Alessandro Siria, Guylaine Ducouret, François Lequeux, Nicolas Lenoir, Guillaume Ovarlez, Annie Colin
Soft Matter - 6(14) 879-893 - - 2018
We study the flow of suspensions of non-Brownian particles dispersed into a Newtonian solvent. Combining capillary rheometry and conventional rheometry, we evidence a succession of two shear thinning regimes separated by a shear thickening one. Through X-ray radiography measurements, we show that during each of those regimes, the flow remains homogeneous and does not involve particle migration. Using a quartz-tuning fork based atomic force microscope, we measure the repulsive force profile and the microscopic friction coefficient μ between two particles immersed into the solvent, as a function of normal load. Coupling measurements from those three techniques, we propose that (1) the first shear-thinning regime at low shear rates occurs for a lubricated rheology and can be interpreted as a decrease of the effective volume fraction under increasing particle pressures, due to short-ranged repulsive …
Cover Picture: Plasma Process. Polym
Fatemeh Rezaei Yury Gorbanev Michael Chys Anton Nikiforov Stijn W. H. Van Hulle Paul Cos Annemie Bogaerts Nathalie De Geyter
First published - 15 6 - doi.org/10.1002/ppap.201870013 - 2018
Front Cover: Electrospinning solutions of polylactic acid in chloroform and 5,5‐N‐dimethylformamide were subjected to preelectrospinning plasma treatment (PEPT). A broad range of spectroscopic analytical techniques, mainly EEM and EPR, were performed to investigate the plasma‐induced chemistry in the organic solutions. The enhanced conductivity of the solutions was ascribed to the formation of plasma‐induced acids during PEPT. The synergistic effect of chemical changes leads to poly lactic acid nanofibers with uniform morphology.

Further details can be found in the article by Fatemeh Rezaei et al. (e1700226).
Innate Immune Signals Induce Anterograde Endosome Transport Promoting MHC Class I Cross-Presentation.
Weimershaus M, Mauvais FX, Saveanu L, Adiko C, Babdor J, Abramova A, Montealegre S, Lawand M, Evnouchidou I, Huber KJ, Chadt A, Zwick M, Vargas P, Dussiot M, Lennon-Dumenil AM, Brocker T, Al-Hasani H, van Endert P.
Cell Reports - 24(13) 3568-3581 - doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2018.08.041 - 2018
Both cross-presentation of antigens by dendritic cells, a key pathway triggering T cell immunity and immune tolerance, and survival of several pathogens residing in intracellular vacuoles are intimately linked to delayed maturation of vesicles containing internalized antigens and microbes. However, how early endosome or phagosome identity is maintained is incompletely understood. We show that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and Fc receptor ligation induces interaction of the GTPase Rab14 with the kinesin KIF16b mediating plus-end-directed microtubule transport of endosomes. As a result, Rab14 recruitment to phagosomes delays their maturation and killing of an internalized pathogen. Enhancing anterograde transport by overexpressing Rab14, promoting the GTP-bound Rab14 state, or inhibiting retrograde transport upregulates cross-presentation. Conversely, reducing Rab14 expression, destabilizing Rab14 endosomes, and inhibiting anterograde microtubule transport by Kif16b knockdown compromise cross-presentation. Therefore, regulation of early endosome trafficking by innate immune signals is a critical parameter in cross-presentation by dendritic cells.
Diversification of human plasmacytoid predendritic cells in response to a single stimulus
Alculumbre SG, Saint-André V1, Di Domizio J, Vargas P, Sirven P, Bost P, Maurin M, Maiuri P, Wery M, Roman MS, Savey L, Touzot M, Terrier B, Saadoun D, Conrad C, Gilliet M, Morillon A, Soumelis V.
Nat Immunol. - 19(1) 63-75 - doi: 10.1038/s41590-017-0012-z - 2018
Innate immune cells adjust to microbial and inflammatory stimuli through a process termed environmental plasticity, which links a given individual stimulus to a unique activated state. Here, we report that activation of human plasmacytoid predendritic cells (pDCs) with a single microbial or cytokine stimulus triggers cell diversification into three stable subpopulations (P1-P3). P1-pDCs (PD-L1+CD80-) displayed a plasmacytoid morphology and specialization for type I interferon production. P3-pDCs (PD-L1-CD80+) adopted a dendritic morphology and adaptive immune functions. P2-pDCs (PD-L1+CD80+) displayed both innate and adaptive functions. Each subpopulation expressed a specific coding- and long-noncoding-RNA signature and was stable after secondary stimulation. P1-pDCs were detected in samples from patients with lupus or psoriasis. pDC diversification was independent of cell divisions or preexisting heterogeneity within steady-state pDCs but was controlled by a TNF autocrine and/or paracrine communication loop. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism for diversity and division of labor in innate immune cells.
Spontaneous migration of cellular aggregates from giant keratocytes to running spheroids
Grégory Beaune, Carles Blanch-Mercader, Stéphane Douezan, Julien Dumond, David Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Damien Cuvelier, Thierry Ondarçuhu, Pierre Sens, Sylvie Dufour, Michael P. Murrell, and Françoise Brochard-Wyart
Cell Sci - 115 (51) 12926-12931 - doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1811348115 - 2018
Despite extensive knowledge on the mechanisms that drive single-cell migration, those governing the migration of cell clusters, as occurring during embryonic development and cancer metastasis, remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the collective migration of cell on adhesive gels with variable rigidity, using 3D cellular aggregates as a model system. After initial adhesion to the substrate, aggregates spread by expanding outward a cell monolayer, whose dynamics is optimal in a narrow range of rigidities. Fast expansion gives rise to the accumulation of mechanical tension that leads to the rupture of cell–cell contacts and the nucleation of holes within the monolayer, which becomes unstable and undergoes dewetting like a liquid film. This leads to a symmetry breaking and causes the entire aggregate to move as a single entity. Varying the substrate rigidity modulates the extent of dewetting and induces different modes of aggregate motion: “giant keratocytes,” where the lamellipodium is a cell monolayer that expands at the front and retracts at the back; “penguins,” characterized by bipedal locomotion; and “running spheroids,” for nonspreading aggregates. We characterize these diverse modes of collective migration by quantifying the flows and forces that drive them, and we unveil the fundamental physical principles that govern these behaviors, which underscore the biological predisposition of living material to migrate, independent of length scale.
Adhesion to nanofibers drives cell membrane remodeling through one-dimensional wetting.
Arthur Charles-Orszag, Feng-Ching Tsai, Daria Bonazzi, Valeria Manriquez, Martin Sachse, Adeline Mallet, Audrey Salles, Keira Melican, Ralitza Staneva, Aurélie Bertin, Corinne Millien, Sylvie Goussard, Pierre Lafaye, Spencer Shorte, Matthieu Piel, Jacomi
Nature Communications - 185.41666667 - Adhesion to nanofibers drives cell membrane remodeling through one-dimensional wetting. - 2018
The shape of cellular membranes is highly regulated by a set of conserved mechanisms that can be manipulated by bacterial pathogens to infect cells. Remodeling of the plasma membrane of endothelial cells by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis is thought to be essential during the blood phase of meningococcal infection, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here we show that plasma membrane remodeling occurs independently of F-actin, along meningococcal type IV pili fibers, by a physical mechanism that we term ‘one-dimensional’ membrane wetting. We provide a theoretical model that describes the physical basis of one-dimensional wetting and show that this mechanism occurs in model membranes interacting with nanofibers, and in human cells interacting with extracellular matrix meshworks. We propose one-dimensional wetting as a new general principle driving the interaction of cells with their environment at the nanoscale that is diverted by meningococci during infection.
Size control in mammalian cells involves modulation of both growth rate and cell cycle duration.
Article | OPEN | Published: 16 August 2018 Size control in mammalian cells involves modulation of both growth rate and cell cycle duration Clotilde Cadart, Sylvain Monnier, Jacopo Grilli, Pablo J. Sáez, Nishit Srivastava, Rafaele Attia, Emmanuel Terriac
Nature Communications - 9 3275 - DOI : 10.1038/s41467-018-05393-0 - 2018
Despite decades of research, how mammalian cell size is controlled remains unclear because of the difficulty of directly measuring growth at the single-cell level. Here we report direct measurements of single-cell volumes over entire cell cycles on various mammalian cell lines and primary human cells. We find that, in a majority of cell types, the volume added across the cell cycle shows little or no correlation to cell birth size, a homeostatic behavior called “adder”. This behavior involves modulation of G1 or S-G2 duration and modulation of growth rate. The precise combination of these mechanisms depends on the cell type and the growth condition. We have developed a mathematical framework to compare size homeostasis in datasets ranging from bacteria to mammalian cells. This reveals that a near-adder behavior is the most common type of size control and highlights the importance of growth rate modulation to size control in mammalian cells.

410 publications.